Medical research

Kidney stem cells can be isolated from urine

Researchers from the Institute for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine (ISRM) at the medical faculty of Heinrich Heine University-Duesseldorf under the directorship of Prof. Dr. James Adjaye have developed a protocol ...

Oncology & Cancer

Brain organoids reveal glioblastoma origins

Glioblastomas are the most aggressive form of brain cancer—they grow and spread rapidly through the brain and are virtually impossible to eradicate, typically leading to death within one or two years of diagnosis. Scientists ...

Medical research

The future of human healing lies in the brain of a starfish

The incredible benefits of stem cell therapy have been widely known for decades. It can alleviate the pain of arthritis, and help patients heal exponentially faster after surgery. But stem cell therapies are prohibitively ...

Medical research

Artificial muscle sheets transform stem cells into bone

Specifically programmed materials can, under specific conditions, encourage stem cells to transform into bone cells—as revealed by a German research team under the leadership of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre ...

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Stem cell

Stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms. They are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types. Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s. The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin or intestinal tissues.

Stem cells can now be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are routinely used in medical therapies. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.

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