Neuroscience

Scientists gain ground on rare congenital neurological disorder

Two recent discoveries co-led by scientists at Cedars-Sinai may help lead to new ways to treat patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), a brain development disorder that causes severe intellectual disability ...

Medical research

For large bone injuries, it's Sonic hedgehog to the rescue

A USC Stem Cell study in npj Regenerative Medicine presents intriguing evidence that large bone injuries might trigger a repair strategy in adults that recapitulates elements of skeletal formation in utero. Key to this repair ...

Oncology & Cancer

Patient-derived and mouse endo-ectocervical organoid generation

A few stem cells, various growth factors, four to six weeks of time—and, of course, a great deal of expertise—are needed to create a scaled-down but nevertheless lifelike and functional replica of a cervix in the laboratory.

Neuroscience

Key protein identified for brain stem cell longevity

A receptor that was first identified as necessary for insulin action, that also is located on the neural stem cells found deep in the brains of mice, is pivotal for brain stem cell longevity, according to a Rutgers study, ...

Oncology & Cancer

New regulator of prostate cancer metastasis discovered

A transcription factor normally associated with androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer has a newly discovered role in controlling lipid biosynthesis, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in Nature Genetics.

Medical research

Frozen testicular tissue still viable after two decades

Male testis tissue that is cryopreserved can be reimplanted after more than 20 years and will go on to make viable sperm, according to a new study in rodents in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Eoin Whelan of the School ...

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Stem cell

Stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms. They are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types. Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s. The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin or intestinal tissues.

Stem cells can now be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are routinely used in medical therapies. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.

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