Psychology & Psychiatry

Bipolar disorder may be linked to Parkinson's disease

People who have bipolar disorder may be more likely to later develop Parkinson's disease than people who do not have bipolar disorder, according at a study published in the May 22, 2019, online issue of Neurology, the medical ...

Neuroscience

Research looks to halt stress-induced seizures

For the over one million Canadians living with traumatic brain injury, the likelihood of developing epilepsy increases significantly because of their injury. When faced with stress or anxiety, that likelihood increases even ...

Surgery

How traumatic injury has become a health care crisis

Traumatic injury, or sudden physical injury requiring immediate medical attention, is an epidemic in the United States. It affects individuals of all ages, races and societal classes and accounts for over 41 million emergency ...

Cardiology

Prehospital Tx guidelines may improve outcomes in severe TBI

(HealthDay)—Implementation of prehospital traumatic brain injury (TBI) guidelines is associated with improvement in survival to hospital discharge for patients with severe TBI, according to a study published online May ...

Surgery

Statewide initiative doubles survival rates after severe TBI

The implementation of a massive, statewide public health initiative led by University of Arizona researchers and involving 21,000 prehospital care patients has doubled the survival rate of severe traumatic brain injury victims ...

page 1 from 23

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) occurs when an outside force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g. occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.

TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Causes include falls, vehicle accidents, and violence. Prevention measures include use of technology to protect those who are in accidents, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of accidents, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws.

Brain trauma can be caused by a direct impact or by acceleration alone. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, brain trauma causes secondary injury, a variety of events that take place in the minutes and days following the injury. These processes, which include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull, contribute substantially to the damage from the initial injury.

TBI can cause a host of physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral effects, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. The 20th century has seen critical developments in diagnosis and treatment which have decreased death rates and improved outcome. These include imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications and emergency surgery. Physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy may be employed for rehabilitation.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA