Psychology & Psychiatry

Brain wiring differences identified in children with conduct disorder

Behavioural problems in young people with severe antisocial behaviour—known as conduct disorder—could be caused by differences in the brain's wiring that link the brain's emotional centres together, according to new research ...

Neuroscience

Listeners immerse themselves in audiobooks in very different ways

Researchers at Aalto University analysed how listeners immerse themselves in audiobooks by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and words that the story brings to mind. The study indicated that word lists resembling ...

Cancer

Morbidity low with focal laser ablation of prostate cancer

(HealthDay)—Focal laser ablation (FLA) of low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer is associated with low morbidity and good oncologic outcomes, according to a study published in the March issue of the Journal of Vascular ...

Neuroscience

Rewiring the brains of stroke patients

Neuroscientist and physical therapist Andrew Butler, professor in the Department of Physical Therapy and associate dean for research at the Byrdine F. Lewis College of Nursing & Health Professions, discusses how he is mobilizing ...

Neuroscience

Research reveals how the most common ALS mutation dooms cells

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have cracked the mystery surrounding the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease. The research suggests possible new approaches ...

Cancer

New, revised topics released in ACR appropriateness criteria

(HealthDay)—The latest edition of the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria has been released and includes 188 diagnostic imaging and interventional radiology topics, with 908 clinical variants covering ...

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is primarily a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualize the internal structure and function of the body. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body. Radio frequency (RF) fields are used to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner. This signal can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to build up enough information to construct an image of the body.:36

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a relatively new technology. The first MR image was published in 1973 and the first cross-sectional image of a living mouse was published in January 1974. The first studies performed on humans were published in 1977. By comparison, the first human X-ray image was taken in 1895.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging was developed from knowledge gained in the study of nuclear magnetic resonance. In its early years the technique was referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). However, as the word nuclear was associated in the public mind with ionizing radiation exposure it is generally now referred to simply as MRI. Scientists still use the term NMRI when discussing non-medical devices operating on the same principles. The term Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is also sometimes used.

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