Medical research

MRI and computer modeling reveals how wrist bones move

We use our wrists constantly, but how do they work? In a just-published Journal of Biomechanics article, the researchers proved a longtime assumption about individuals' right and left wrists, while also finding differences ...

Autism spectrum disorders

Brain clock ticks differently in autism

The neural 'time windows' in certain small brain areas contribute to the complex cognitive symptoms of autism, new research suggests. In a brain imaging study of adults, the severity of autistic symptoms was linked to how ...

Neuroscience

The unexpected creates reward when listening to music

If you love it when a musician strikes that unexpected but perfect chord, you are not alone. New research shows the musically unexpected activates the reward centre of our brains, and makes us learn about the music as we ...

Cardiology

Postconditioning during PCI for STEMI shows delayed benefits

(HealthDay)—The benefits of postconditioning (PostC) balloon inflations in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may not be apparent immediately, ...

Neuroscience

How we identified brain patterns of consciousness

Humans have learned to travel through space, eradicate diseases and understand nature at the breathtakingly tiny level of fundamental particles. Yet we have no idea how consciousness – our ability to experience and learn ...

Arthritis & Rheumatism

MRI-guided Tx strategy not superior for rheumatoid arthritis

(HealthDay)—A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided treat-to-target strategy is not associated with improved disease activity remission rates for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission, according ...

Health

Going for an MRI scan with tattoos?

Tattoos are increasingly popular. Every eighth person in Germany has already felt the sting of a tattoo needle. Yet, examining tattooed people via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could possibly be risky. The first prospective ...

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is primarily a medical imaging technique most commonly used in radiology to visualize the internal structure and function of the body. MRI provides much greater contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than computed tomography (CT) does, making it especially useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological (cancer) imaging. Unlike CT, it uses no ionizing radiation, but uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body. Radio frequency (RF) fields are used to systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, causing the hydrogen nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner. This signal can be manipulated by additional magnetic fields to build up enough information to construct an image of the body.:36

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a relatively new technology. The first MR image was published in 1973 and the first cross-sectional image of a living mouse was published in January 1974. The first studies performed on humans were published in 1977. By comparison, the first human X-ray image was taken in 1895.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging was developed from knowledge gained in the study of nuclear magnetic resonance. In its early years the technique was referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). However, as the word nuclear was associated in the public mind with ionizing radiation exposure it is generally now referred to simply as MRI. Scientists still use the term NMRI when discussing non-medical devices operating on the same principles. The term Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) is also sometimes used.

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