Young killer cells protect against infectious mononucleosis

December 19, 2013

More than 90 percent of all adults are carriers of the oncogenic Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Primary infection with this herpes virus as a young child is generally not linked to any symptoms, and usually offers life-long protection from its cancer-causing effect. However, for people who do not become infected with the virus until adolescence, the infection often leads to infectious mononucleosis (commonly known as glandular fever).

Our immune systems can generally fend off this disease after a period of between one and several months. However, there is an increased risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma at a later stage, a cancerous tumor of the lymphatic system. Immunologists from the University of Zurich have now discovered a risk factor that is in part responsible for the outbreak of in .

Young natural killer cells combat primary infection

The researchers used an animal model to show that the loss of innate immune control by young natural killer cells can lead to infectious mononucleosis. "Young natural killer cells, which small children in particular have in abundance, seem to be especially suited to killing off the cells that multiply EBV", according to Christian Münz, Professor of Experimental Immunology at the University of Zurich. "This weakens the primary infection and infectious mononucleosis does not break out".

Without the defense of the natural killer cells, EBV multiplies so dramatically during the primary infection phase that the aggressive response of the adaptive immune system – chiefly of the T killer cells – makes the infected person sick with infectious mononucleosis. "In the we also observed weight loss and the increased occurrence of EBV-associated lymphomas. Consequently, seem to play a key role in the development of the primary infection with Epstein-Barr Virus". This is how Christian Münz explains the results of the study.

Young people could benefit from a vaccination

Adolescents who are not yet carriers of EBV are at an increased risk of developing infectious mononucleosis. Christian Münz's work group is currently examining vaccinations that could protect against EBV infection. This could prevent the outbreak of infectious mononucleosis and reduce the related risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma.

Explore further: NIH scientists outline steps toward Epstein-Barr virus vaccine

More information: Obinna Chijioke, Anne Müller, Regina Feederle, Mario Henrique M. Barros, Carsten Krieg, Vanessa Emmel, Emanuela Marcenaro, Carol S. Leung, Olga Antsiferova, Vanessa Landtwing, Walter Bossart, Alessandro Moretta, Rocio Hassan, Onur Boyman, Gerald Niedobitek, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Riccarda Capaul and Christian Münz. Human Natural Killer Cells Prevent Infectious Mononucleosis Features by Targeting Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. Cell Reports. December 19, 2013.

Related Stories

NIH scientists outline steps toward Epstein-Barr virus vaccine

November 2, 2011

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects nine out of ten people worldwide at some point during their lifetimes. Infections in early childhood often cause no disease symptoms, but people infected during adolescence or young adulthood ...

Study reveals new clues to Epstein-Barr virus

February 21, 2013

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) affects more than 90 percent of the population worldwide and was the first human virus found to be associated with cancer. Now, researchers from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have broadened ...

How a ubiquitous herpesvirus sometimes leads to cancer

October 10, 2013

You might not know it, but most of us are infected with the herpesvirus known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). For most of us, the virus will lead at worst to a case of infectious mononucleosis, but sometimes, and especially ...

Recommended for you

Flu study, on hold, yields new vaccine technology

September 2, 2015

Vaccines to protect against an avian influenza pandemic as well as seasonal flu may be mass produced more quickly and efficiently using technology described today by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the ...

We've all got a blind spot, but it can be shrunk

August 31, 2015

You've probably never noticed, but the human eye includes an unavoidable blind spot. That's because the optic nerve that sends visual signals to the brain must pass through the retina, which creates a hole in that light-sensitive ...

Biologists identify mechanisms of embryonic wound repair

August 31, 2015

It's like something out of a science-fiction movie - time-lapse photography showing how wounds in embryos of fruit flies heal themselves. The images are not only real; they shed light on ways to improve wound recovery in ...

New 'Tissue Velcro' could help repair damaged hearts

August 28, 2015

Engineers at the University of Toronto just made assembling functional heart tissue as easy as fastening your shoes. The team has created a biocompatible scaffold that allows sheets of beating heart cells to snap together ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.