(HealthDay)—Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeD) is associated with a lower likelihood of incident cognitive impairment (ICI), especially among those without diabetes, according to a study published in the April 30 issue of Neurology.
Georgios Tsivgoulis, M.D., from the University of Athens in Greece, and colleagues examined the correlation between adherence to MeD and the likelihood of ICI. Data were collected from 17,478 individuals enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study 2003 to 2007.
During a mean follow-up of 4.0 years, the researchers identified ICI in 7 percent of the participants. Before and after adjustment for potential cofounders, including demographics, environmental factors, depressive symptoms, and self-reported health, higher adherence to MeD correlated with a lower likelihood of ICI (odds ratio, 0.89 and 0.87, respectively). The association between adherence to MeD and ICI was not affected by race but was affected by diabetes mellitus; high adherence to MeD correlated with significantly lower odds of ICI in individuals without diabetes (odds ratio, 0.81) but not in individuals with diabetes.
"Higher adherence to MeD was associated with a lower likelihood of ICI independent of potential confounders," the authors write. "This association was moderated by [the] presence of diabetes mellitus."
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Journal information: Neurology