Hypoxia

How do neural cells respond to ischemia?

A group of researchers from the Lomonosov Moscow State University, in collaboration with their Irish colleagues from the University College Cork, has studied the early response of cells to ischemia, which is a restriction ...

May 06, 2015
popularity20 comments 0

Researchers confirm gene p73's role in tumor growth

A team of researchers at National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) and Singapore General Hospital (SGH) has determined dual functionality gene p73, in both the promotion and suppression in tumour growth. The NCCS team also ...

Jun 29, 2015
popularity5 comments 0

Keeping a lid on inflammation

Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are part of the system of checks and balances that prevents the immune response from going overboard and causing autoimmune disease. Although critically important for shaping the immune response ...

Jun 17, 2015
popularity56 comments 0

The key to stopping sarcomas' spread

When sarcomas become large enough and outgrow their blood supply, they become vulnerable to hypoxia—a lack of oxygen. That adaptation not only enables them to survive the stress of low oxygen—it also enables them to withstand ...

May 12, 2015
popularity5 comments 0

Hypoxia, or hypoxiation, is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or a region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during strenuous physical exercise. A mismatch between oxygen supply and its demand at the cellular level may result in a hypoxic condition. Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia.

Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia in that, in the latter, the oxygen concentration within the arterial blood is abnormally low. It is possible to experience hypoxia and have a low oxygen content (e.g., due to anemia) but maintain high oxygen partial pressure (pO2). Incorrect use of these terms can easily lead to confusion, especially as hypoxemia is among the causes of hypoxia (in hypoxemic hypoxia).

Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to potentially fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen content, e.g. while diving underwater especially when using closed-circuit rebreather systems that control the amount of oxygen in the supplied air. A mild and non-damaging intermittent hypoxia is used intentionally during altitude trainings to develop an athletic performance adaptation at both the systemic and cellular level.

Hypoxia is also a serious consequence of preterm birth in the neonate. The main cause for this is that the lungs of the human fetus are among the last organs to develop during pregnancy. To assist the lungs to distribute oxygenated blood throughout the body, infants at risk of hypoxia are often placed inside an incubator capable of providing continuous positive airway pressure (also known as a humidicrib).

In humans, hypoxia is detected by chemoreceptors in the carotid body. This response does not control ventilation rate at normal pO2, but below normal the activity of neurons innervating these receptors increases dramatically, so much so to override the signals from central chemoreceptors in the hypothalamus, increasing pO2 despite a falling pCO2

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA

Latest Spotlight News

How language gives your brain a break

Here's a quick task: Take a look at the sentences below and decide which is the most effective. (1) "John threw out the old trash sitting in the kitchen." (2) "John threw the old trash sitting in the kitchen out."

Study reveals new insight into DNA repair

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the worst possible form of genetic malfunction that can cause cancer and resistance to therapy. New information published this week reveals more about why this occurs and how these breaks ...

New insight into how the immune system sounds the alarm

T cells are the guardians of our bodies: they constantly search for harmful invaders and diseased cells, ready to swarm and kill off any threats. A better understanding of these watchful sentries could allow scientists to ...