Medical research

Navigating from the genome to the clinic using 'cell maps'

Breast cancer, COVID-19, and autism may seem unrelated, but they share some surprising connections. Some of the same genes that are mutated in breast cancer also get hijacked by COVID-19, and some other genes mutated in cancer ...

Oncology & Cancer

Density, benign disease raise risk of breast cancer

Women with dense breast tissue and benign breast disease face an elevated risk of future breast cancer and could benefit from a tailored mammogram screening strategy, according to a large study published in the journal in ...

Oncology & Cancer

Digital breast tomosynthesis tool can help predict breast cancer

An image-based risk prediction model using digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can predict the risk for breast cancer after a negative screening exam, according to a study published in the May 11 issue of Science Translational ...

Oncology & Cancer

Magnetic therapy enhances chemotherapy treatment of breast cancer

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated death for women worldwide. While chemotherapy is the mainstream treatment for breast cancer, more than 50% of women undergoing chemotherapy will experience at least ...

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Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a type of cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas; those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas. Breast cancer is a disease of humans and other mammals; while the overwhelming majority of cases in humans are women, men can sometimes also develop breast cancer.

The size, stage, rate of growth, and other characteristics of the tumor determine the kinds of treatment. Treatment may include surgery, drugs (hormonal therapy and chemotherapy), radiation and/or immunotherapy. Surgical removal of the tumor provides the single largest benefit, with surgery alone being capable of producing a cure in many cases. To somewhat increase the likelihood of long-term disease-free survival, several chemotherapy regimens are commonly given in addition to surgery. Most forms of chemotherapy kill cells that are dividing rapidly anywhere in the body, and as a result cause temporary hair loss and digestive disturbances. Radiation is indicated especially after breast conserving surgery and substantially improves local relapse rates and in many circumstances also overall survival. Some breast cancers are sensitive to hormones such as estrogen and/or progesterone, which makes it possible to treat them by blocking the effects of these hormones.

Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 22.9% of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) in women. In 2008, breast cancer caused 458,503 deaths worldwide (13.7% of cancer deaths in women). Breast cancer is more than 100 times more common in women than breast cancer in men, although males tend to have poorer outcomes due to delays in diagnosis.

Prognosis and survival rate varies greatly depending on cancer type, staging and treatment. However, survival rates across the world are generally good. Overall more than 8 out of 10 women (84%) in England that are diagnosed with the disease survive it for at least 5 years.

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