Cancer

Cancer comparison across species highlights new drug targets

Cancer genes in mucosal melanoma, a rare and poorly understood subtype of melanoma, have been compared in humans, dogs and horses for the first time by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators. ...

Immunology

Venoms are sources in the search for new medicines

Animal venoms are the subject of study at the Butantan Institute in São Paulo. But in this case, the idea is not to find antidotes, but rather to use the properties of the venoms themselves to identify molecular targets ...

Cancer

Why some brain tumors respond to immunotherapy

Columbia researchers have learned why some glioblastomas—the most common type of brain cancer—respond to immunotherapy. The findings could help identify patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment with immunotherapy ...

Cancer

Researchers discover method to 'turn off' mutated melanoma

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and notorious for its resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Approximately 25 percent of melanoma is driven by oncogenic mutations in the NRAS gene, making it a very attractive ...

Cancer

How do metastatic tumor cells grow in lymph nodes?

The spread of cancer to a new part of the body accounts for about 90 percent of cancer deaths. Cancer cells can spread from sites of origin to other parts of the body through blood vessels (blood-borne metastasis) or the ...

Cancer

Nullifying protein YTHDF1 enhances anti-tumor response

Cancer immunotherapy—an approach that removes the barriers that protect cancer cells from a patient's immune system—has revolutionized the treatment of many cancer types. About 40 percent of melanoma patients, for example, ...

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Melanoma i/ˌmɛləˈnoʊmə/ (from Greek μέλας - melas, "dark") is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells that produce the dark pigment, melanin, which is responsible for the color of skin. They predominantly occur in skin, but are also found in other parts of the body, including the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). Melanoma can occur in any part of the body that contains melanocytes.

Melanoma is less common than other skin cancers. However, it is much more dangerous and causes the majority (75%) of deaths related to skin cancer. Worldwide, doctors diagnose about 160,000 new cases of melanoma yearly. The diagnosis is more frequent in women than in men and is particularly common among Caucasians living in sunny climates, with high rates of incidence in Australia, New Zealand, North America, Latin America, and northern Europe. According to a WHO report, about 48,000 melanoma related deaths occur worldwide per year.

The treatment includes surgical removal of the tumor, adjuvant treatment, chemo- and immunotherapy, or radiation therapy. The chance of a cure is greatest when the tumor is discovered while it is still small and thin, and can be entirely removed surgically.

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