Diabetes

Individualized medical-nutrition therapy important in diabetes

(HealthDay)—Diabetes-focused medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is fundamental to overall diabetes management and should be adapted as needed throughout life, according to a consensus report published in the May issue of Diabetes ...

Overweight & Obesity

Metformin may help patients maintain weight loss long-term

In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) clinical trial and its long-term follow-up study, among the persons who lost at least 5 percent of their body weight during the first year, long-term maintenance of weight loss was ...

Radiology & Imaging

Obesity linked with differences in form and structure of the brain

Researchers using sophisticated MRI technology have found that higher levels of body fat are associated with differences in the brain's form and structure, including smaller volumes of gray matter, according to a study published ...

Diabetes

Atrasentan tied to lower risk for kidney events in T2DM with CKD

(HealthDay)—Atrasentan is associated with a reduced risk for renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease, according to a study published online April 14 in The Lancet to coincide with the International ...

Overweight & Obesity

Can gut microbes and genes do the job of weight loss surgery?

Mice that have undergone weight loss surgery experience a change in the composition of their gut bacteria and the functioning of their genes, leading scientists to explore the possibility of mimicking these changes to develop ...

Health

How your smartphone can encourage active living

Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for death globally and has reached the status of a global pandemic —a definition that is usually associated with infectious diseases like influenza.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 – formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes – is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequently having to urinate, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If blood sugars are not lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed. In those on insulin there is typically the requirement to routinely check blood sugar levels.

Rates of diabetes have increased markedly over the last 50 years in parallel with obesity. As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Long-term complications from high blood sugar can include heart attacks, strokes, diabetic retinopathy where eye sight is affected, kidney failure which may require dialysis, and poor circulation of limbs leading to amputations. The acute complication ketoacidosis is uncommon unlike in type 1 diabetes, nonketonic hyperglycemia however may occur.

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