Urgent need for tuberculosis vaccines; experts report progress, obstacles in growing drug resistance
Drawing on recent findings of a significant rise in cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK and globally, top TB researchers at a briefing today in London called for greater focus on the quest for new vaccines—a ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Oct 15, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
A swarm of trained rats is on its way to Mozambique to help the country's over-stretched health system detect tuberculosis in patients, officials said Friday.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Oct 12, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
About 50 non-governmental organisations on Friday urged the French-speaking nations holding a summit in Kinshasa at the weekend to "make concrete commitments" to fight AIDS in Africa.
HIV & AIDS Oct 12, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
(Medical Xpress)—In two separate studies, researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center have discovered a new class of treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as well as evidence ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Oct 10, 2012 | not rated yet | 0 |
An Australian research team has discovered how specialised immune cells recognise products of vitamin B synthesis that are unique to bacteria and yeast, triggering the body to fight infection.
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A patient in rural Uganda is diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), but never begins treatment. In Hanoi, Vietnam, someone with infectious TB might never be diagnosed because the health center where she would ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Oct 03, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Why do medical research findings often fail to reach the people who could benefit from them most? And why are health programs proven to work in one setting frequently unable to achieve success in other places?
Other Oct 03, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered a new class of treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as well as evidence of a growing need to quickly genotype individual strains of ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Oct 02, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Results from an observational study evaluating a new anti-TB drug have found that the treatment can improve outcomes and reduce mortality among patients with both MDR-TB and XDR-TB.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Sep 26, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Researchers in New Zealand are inching closer to the development of the first effective oral vaccine to protect against tuberculosis - a disease which still kills more people worldwide than any other bacterial disease.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Sep 26, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
The current practice of large donors is forcing the World Health Organization and the World Bank to reflect on how to reform to remain more appealing to the wider set of stakeholders and interests at play, according to Devi ...
Health Sep 25, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center announces the launch of the Moon Shots Program, an unprecedented effort to dramatically accelerate the pace of converting scientific discoveries into clinical ...
Cancer Sep 21, 2012 | 4 / 5 (2) | 1
So-called lifestyle diseases are gaining ground with epidemic speed in low-income countries. The traditional health focus in these countries has been to combat communicable diseases such as malaria, HIV and tuberculosis. ...
Health Sep 20, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Films that feature characters with cancer have become a familiar sight for movie-goers in recent years, but they rarely portray the patient's chances of survival accurately, Italian reserachers will report at the ESMO 2012 ...
Cancer Sep 19, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
A new postage stamp-sized, paper-based device could provide a simple and reliable way to monitor for liver damage at a cost of only pennies per test, say researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and Diagnostics ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Sep 19, 2012 | not rated yet | 0 |
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have an active MTB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit their saliva through the air. Most infections in humans result in an asymptomatic, latent infection, and about one in ten latent infections eventually progress to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those infected.
The classic symptoms are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the last giving rise to the formerly prevalent colloquial term "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), a tuberculin skin test, blood tests, as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of bodily fluids. Treatment is difficult and requires long courses of multiple antibiotics. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in (extensively) multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Prevention relies on screening programs and vaccination, usually with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine.
One third of the world's population is thought to have been infected with M. tuberculosis, and new infections occur at a rate of about one per second. In 2007 there were an estimated 13.7 million chronic active cases, and in 2010 8.8 million new cases, and 1.45 million deaths, mostly in developing countries. The absolute number of tuberculosis cases has been decreasing since 2006 and new cases since 2002. In addition, more people in the developing world contract tuberculosis because their immune systems are more likely to be compromised due to higher rates of AIDS. The distribution of tuberculosis is not uniform across the globe; about 80% of the population in many Asian and African countries test positive in tuberculin tests, while only 5–10% of the U.S. population test positive.
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.
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