Domestic violence victims more likely to take up smoking

One third of women around the world have experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their intimate partners with consequences from post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression, to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Now, in a new study in 29 low-income and middle-income countries, researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health have identified yet another serious health risk associated with intimate partner violence (IPV): smoking.

The researchers examined the association between IPV and among 231,892 aged 15-29, using information collected in the Demographic and Health Surveys. Intimate partner violence is a serious problem in low- and middle-income countries. Reports of IPV in their study ranged from 9 to 63%. Employing a meta-analysis of country-level data that accounted for confounding factors like age, education, and household wealth, they found a 58% increased risk for smoking among the women who experienced IPV.

Women are thought to smoke tobacco to self-medicate to cope with stress from IPV. Many may be unaware of the serious ; tobacco kills half of its users, according to the World Health Organization.

"A recent WHO report on IPV recommended that there is a clear need to scale-up efforts to both prevent IPV from happening in the first place and to provide necessary services for women experiencing IPV," says senior author Peter A. Muennig, MD, MPH, associate professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health.

The study points to a specific need for investments to help IPV victims avoid tobacco, adds first author Rishi Caleyachetty, MBBS, PhD, an epidemiologist on a Fulbright Scholarship at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health when he wrote the paper. "Information about the consequences of smoking, motivation to quit smoking and smoking-cessation treatments could be incorporated into IPV treatment by healthcare providers who routinely interact with IPV victims," Dr. Caleyachetty says.

Any intervention to lower smoking would very likely also improve their overall health. A 2013 report by the World Health Organization suggested a link between IPV and chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease. "Smoking is associated with cardiovascular disease, and therefore may explain part of the association between exposure to IPV and cardiovascular disease," says Dr. Caleyachetty. "However, to my knowledge this has not been extensively examined."

The new study focused on low- and middle-income countries, where little research into the IPV-tobacco link has been done. However, the researchers say their results likely mean that the phenomenon is a global one. They cite among other papers, a 2008 study by Hee-Jin Jun et al that showed increased risk in American women.

IPV and smoking may have both been underreported in the current study, which could mean that the association between the two is stronger. A temporal relationship (e.g. IPV causes smoking) couldn't be determined since the data was collected at only one point in time. Research following a group of women over time would be necessary to strengthen the evidence.

Results appear online in the journal Global Public Health.

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harleyrider1978
not rated yet May 05, 2014
80% of mental health patients the world over are also women suffering from delusions and hormone imbalances!
harleyrider1978
not rated yet May 05, 2014
Epidemiologists Vote to Keep Doing Junk Science
http://www.manhea...nce.html
Epidemiologists Vote to Keep Doing Junk Science

Epidemiology Monitor (October 1997)

An estimated 300 attendees a recent meeting of the American College of
Epidemiology voted approximately 2 to 1 to keep doing junk science!

Specifically, the attending epidemiologists voted against a motion
proposed in an Oxford-style debate that "risk factor" epidemiology is
placing the field of epidemiology at risk of losing its credibility.

Risk factor epidemiology focuses on specific cause-and-effect
relationships–like heavy coffee drinking increases heart attack risk. A
different approach to epidemiology might take a broader
perspective–placing heart attack risk in the context of more than just
one risk factor, including social factors.

Risk factor epidemiology is nothing more than a perpetual junk science machine.

But as NIEHS epidemiologist Marilyn Tseng said "It's hard to be an
epidemiologist and vote that what most of us are doing is actually harmful
to epidemiology."

But who really cares about what they're doing to epidemiology. I thought
it was public health that mattered!

we have seen the "SELECTIVE" blindness disease that
Scientist have practiced over the past ten years. Seems the only color they
see is GREEN BACKS, it's a very infectious disease that has spread through
the Scientific community with the same speed that any infectious disease
would spread. And has affected the T(thinking) Cells as well as sight.

Seems their eyes see only what their paid to see. To be honest, I feel
after the Agent Orange Ranch Hand Study, and the Slutz and Nutz Implant
Study, they have cast a dark shadow over their profession of being anything
other than traveling professional witnesses for corporate hire with a lack
of moral concern to their obligation of science and truth.

The true "Risk Factor" is a question of ; will they ever be able to earn
back the respect of their profession as an Oath to Science, instead of
corporate paid witnesses with selective vision?
Oh, if this seems way harsh, it's nothing compared to the damage of peoples
lives that selective blindness has caused!
harleyrider1978
not rated yet May 05, 2014
The rise of a pseudo-scientific links lobby

Every day there seems to be a new study making a link between food, chemicals or lifestyle and ill-health. None of them has any link with reality.

http://www.spiked...le/13287
harleyrider1978
not rated yet May 05, 2014
Health Benefits of Smoking Cigarettes.

1) Smoking cigarettes lowers risk of knee-replacement surgery.

Shocking studies conclude that men who smoke have lowered risk of undergoing tkr than those who have never smoked. This study was done at the University of Adelaide in Australia. This is most commonly found in obese people and joggers, as smokers may not jog at all and less likely to be morbidly obese.They also believe smoking cigarettes protects individuals from osteoporosis and the nicotine within helps prevent joint deterioration and cartilage.

2) Lowered risk of Parkinson's Disease.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive infection located in the nervous system that is marked by tremor, muscular rigidity and slow, imprecise movement. Mostly found in m...iddle-aged and older individuals, its associated with the loss of basal ganglia in the brain and lowered counts of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The indiv
harleyrider1978
not rated yet May 05, 2014
The individual lacks control of body movement and poor balance and coordination. So what can smoking cigarettes do about this disease?

(3) Control Obesity by Smoking Cigarettes.
Another one of the health benefits identified by smoking cigarettes is the reduced risk of obesity amongst tobacco users. The ingredient within cigarettes, nicotine, is an appetite suppressant. This was a marketing technique during the early 20th century by tobacco companies, claiming it would make women thinner. In July 2011 in the Physiology & Behavior journey, a study was published with information about the reason's nicotine prevents weight gain, and quitting automatically will increase one's weight.

(4) Increases Chances of Surviving Heart Attacks.
Those who are not smoking cigarettes are more likely to die from a heart attack than one who has been using tobacco for a long time. Although the risk of heart attacks is increased in those smoking cigarettes, the chances of them dying is lowered. They are also more accepting of plaque removal therapies of the arteries. These include fibrinolytic therapy and angioplasty. The reason for heart attacks is the fat and plaque building up around the heart. A theory as to why those smoking cigarettes survive heart attacks is because they are younger when they have it, probably 10 years younger than a non-smoker having their first attack.

(5) Assisting Clopidogrel.
Clopidogrel is a drug that is used to prevent strokes and heart attacks in at-risk patients. It falls in a family of medications known as antiplatelet drugs. It help reduce the risk of blood clots that may induce heart attacks or strokes. These tablets are usually taken by mouth. What does cigarettes have to do with prevention of heart attacks and strokes if it is a definitive cause of these problems?