Researchers identify brain mechanism for motion detection in fruit flies

by James Devitt
Researchers identify brain mechanism for motion detection in fruit flies
A team of scientists has identified the neurons used in certain types of motion detection in fruit flies—findings that deepen our understanding of how the visual system functions. Credit: janeff/iStock

A team of scientists has identified the neurons used in certain types of motion detection—findings that deepen our understanding of how the visual system functions.

"Our results show how neurons in the brain work together as part of an intricate process used to detect motion," says Claude Desplan, a professor in NYU's Department of Biology and the study's senior author.

The study, whose authors included Rudy Behnia, an NYU post-doctoral fellow, as well as researchers from the NYU Center for Neural Science and Yale and Stanford universities, appears in the journal Nature.

The researchers sought to explain some of the neurological underpinnings of a long-established and influential model, the Hassenstein–Reichardt correlator. It posits that relies on separate input channels that are processed in the brain in ways that coordinate these distinct inputs. The Nature study focused on neurons acting in this processing.

The researchers examined the fruit fly Drosophila, which is commonly used in biological research as a model system to decipher basic principles that direct the functions of the brain.

Previously, scientists studying Drosophila have identified two parallel pathways that respond to either moving light, or dark edges—a dynamic that underscores much of what flies see in detecting motion. For instance, a bird is an object whose dark edges flies see as it first moves across the bright light of the sky; after it passes through their field of view, flies see the light edge of the background sky.

However, the nature of the underlying neurological processing had not been clear.

In their study, the researchers analyzed the neuronal activity of particular neurons used to detect these movements. Specifically, they found that four neurons in the brain's medulla implement two processing steps. Two neurons— Tm1 and Tm2—respond to brightness decrements (central to the detection of moving dark edges); by contrast, two other neurons— Mi1 and Tm3—respond to brightness increments (or light edges). Moreover, Tm1 responds slower than does Tm2 while Mi1 responds slower than does Tm3, a difference in kinetics that fundamental to the Hassenstein-Reichardt correlator.

In sum, these process the two inputs that precede the coordination outlined by the Hassenstein–Reichardt correlator, thereby revealing elements of the long-sought neural activity of motion detection in the fly.

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Mind alteration device makes fruit flies sing and dance

May 26, 2014

In a joint effort, with collaboration partners from the Vienna University of Technology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the team of Andrew Straw at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) ...

Recommended for you

New ALS associated gene identified using innovative strategy

Oct 22, 2014

Using an innovative exome sequencing strategy, a team of international scientists led by John Landers, PhD, at the University of Massachusetts Medical School has shown that TUBA4A, the gene encoding the Tubulin Alpha 4A protein, ...

Can bariatric surgery lead to severe headache?

Oct 22, 2014

Bariatric surgery may be a risk factor for a condition that causes severe headaches, according to a study published in the October 22, 2014, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurol ...

Bipolar disorder discovery at the nano level

Oct 22, 2014

A nano-sized discovery by Northwestern Medicine scientists helps explain how bipolar disorder affects the brain and could one day lead to new drug therapies to treat the mental illness.

User comments