News tagged with circumcision
Circumcision drastically alters the microbiome of the penis, changes that could explain why circumcision offers protection against HIV and other viral infections. In a study to be published on April 16 in mBio, the online ...
HIV & AIDS Apr 16, 2013 | 3.4 / 5 (5) | 4 |
South Africa is home to the largest HIV epidemic in the world with a total of 5.6 million people living with HIV. Large-scale clinical trials evaluating combination methods of prevention and treatment are often prohibitively ...
HIV & AIDS Apr 15, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Thrashing wildly, five-year-old Reta wails as she is hoisted onto a bed during a circumcision ceremony in a school-hall-turned-clinic on Indonesia's island of Java.
Other Mar 24, 2013 | not rated yet | 1
(AP)—German lawmakers approved a bill Wednesday that explicitly permits male infant circumcision, ending months of legal uncertainty after a court ruling that the practice amounts to bodily harm led to ...
Health Dec 12, 2012 | 1 / 5 (1) | 1
(AP)—Left-wing lawmakers in Germany are threatening to oppose government efforts to keep male infant circumcision legal.
Health Nov 12, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Many cases of female genital mutilation likely go unreported in Australia, a state minister said Friday after four people were charged over the alleged circumcision of two girls aged 6 and 7.
Health Sep 14, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
(AP)—The United States' most influential pediatricians group says the health benefits of circumcision in newborn boys outweigh any risks and insurance companies should pay for it.
Health Aug 27, 2012 | 1 / 5 (1) | 1
A senior member of Germany's ethics committee Thursday called for a compromise in a heated debate over religious circumcision after a court ruled the practice was tantamount to grievous bodily harm.
Other Aug 23, 2012 | not rated yet | 4
A team of disease experts and health economists at Johns Hopkins warns that steadily declining rates of U.S. infant male circumcision could add more than $4.4 billion in avoidable health care costs if rates over the next ...
Health Aug 20, 2012 | 1.2 / 5 (17) | 10 |
Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe launched the national census Wednesday, saying he hoped the once-a-decade count would measure the extent to which AIDS was affecting the population.
HIV & AIDS Aug 15, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
A Swiss hospital announced Friday that it has lifted a moratorium on religiously-motivated circumcisions imposed in July in the wake of a court ruling in neighbouring Germany.
Other Aug 10, 2012 | 1 / 5 (3) | 2
New findings from South Africa survey show great progress: Nearly one million adults each month are tested for HIV
(Medical Xpress) -- The 3rd South African National HIV Communication Survey (NCS) results released today at the XIX International AIDS Conference in Washington, D.C., revealed new data that show substantial increases in behaviors ...
HIV & AIDS Jul 24, 2012 | 2 / 5 (1) | 0
German doctors are seeking an urgent clarification from the government over religious circumcision after a court ruling calling it a criminal act prompted an international outcry.
Other Jul 15, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 38
An investigation led by UCSF has found that the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission is increased three fold for women with bacterial vaginosis, a common disorder in which the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is ...
HIV & AIDS Jun 26, 2012 | not rated yet | 0 |
Circumcising young boys on religious grounds amounts to grievous bodily harm, a German court ruled Tuesday in a landmark decision that the Jewish community said trampled on parents' religious rights.
Health Jun 26, 2012 | 4.8 / 5 (5) | 4
Male circumcision is the surgical removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis. The word "circumcision" comes from Latin circum (meaning "around") and cædere (meaning "to cut"). Early depictions of circumcision are found in cave paintings and Ancient Egyptian tombs, though some pictures are open to interpretation. Religious male circumcision is considered a commandment from God in Judaism. In Islam, though not discussed in the Qur'an, male circumcision is widely practised and most often considered to be a sunnah. It is also customary in some Christian churches in Africa.
Global estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that 30 percent of males are circumcised, of whom 68 percent are Muslim. The prevalence of circumcision varies mostly with religious affiliation, and sometimes culture. Most circumcisions are performed during adolescence for cultural or religious reasons; in some countries they are more commonly performed during infancy. Circumcision is also used therapeutically, as one of the treatment options for balanitis xerotica obliterans, paraphimosis, balanitis, posthitis, balanoposthitis and urinary tract infections.
Circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection in heterosexual populations that are at high risk. Evidence among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa shows a decreased risk of between 38 percent and 66 percent over two years and in this population it appears cost effective. Evidence of benefit for women is controversial and evidence of benefit in developed countries and among men who have sex with men is yet to be determined. The WHO currently recommends circumcision as part of a comprehensive program for prevention of HIV transmission in areas with high endemic rates of HIV. Ethical concerns remain regarding the implementation of campaigns to promote circumcision. According to the Royal Dutch Medical Association (2010), no professional association of physicians currently recommends routine circumcision. Some bodies have discussed under what circumstances neonatal circumcision is ethical.
There is controversy regarding circumcision. Arguments that have been raised in opposition to circumcision include that it adversely affects penile function and sexual pleasure, is justified only by medical myths, is extremely painful, and is a violation of human rights. Those raised in favour of circumcision include that it provides important health advantages which outweigh the risks, has no substantial effects on sexual function, has a low complication rate when carried out by an experienced physician, and is best performed during the neonatal period.
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