News tagged with genetic data
More than just a tool for predicting health, modern genetics is upending long-held assumptions about who we are. A new study by Harvard researchers casts new light on the intermingling and migration of European, Middle Eastern ...
Genetics May 24, 2011 | 4.8 / 5 (10) | 15 |
Scientists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, in collaboration with researchers from Icelandic Heart Association, Sage Bionetworks, and other institutions, have discovered that a network of genes involved in ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Apr 25, 2013 | 4.6 / 5 (5) | 0 |
A new international report from scientists around the world finds that common variants in 28 regions of DNA are associated with blood pressure in human patients. Of the identified regions, most were completely unsuspected, ...
Genetics Sep 11, 2011 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress) -- Mayo Clinic researchers have discovered two mutations responsible for a devastating neurological condition they first identified 15 years ago. The researchers say their study -- appearing in Nature Ge ...
Genetics May 01, 2011 | 4.3 / 5 (4) | 0 |
Lost in the euphoria of the 2003 announcement that the human genome had been sequenced was a fundamental question: how can we be sure that an individual's genome has been read correctly?
Genetics Feb 03, 2012 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0
Researchers in Japan have created a genetic test that will help doctors diagnose prostate cancer. When given together with testing for prostate specific antigen (PSA), a widely used diagnostic biomarker for ...
Cancer Feb 08, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Microbes from the human mouth are telling Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists something about periodontitis and more after they cracked the genetic code of bacteria linked to the condition.
Medical research Mar 18, 2013 | 4.3 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Large-scale study of East Asian individuals reveals a number of previously overlooked genetic variants
Broad, population-based investigations known as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now a standard tool for helping scientists to pinpoint genetic variations that can contribute to disease risk or pathology. ...
Genetics Jan 27, 2012 | 3.7 / 5 (3) | 0
When RNA component units called ribonucleotides become embedded in genomic DNA, which contains the complete genetic data for an organism, they can cause problems for cells. It is known that ribonucleotides ...
Cancer Dec 04, 2011 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
With no lab tests to guide the clinician, psychiatric diagnostics is challenging and controversial. Antisocial personality disorder is defined as "a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others ...
Psychology & Psychiatry Feb 07, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0
One subtype of breast cancer shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a cancer that is very difficult to treat, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of ...
Cancer Sep 23, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
A new £100m project will map the DNA of up to 100,000 patients with cancer and other rare diseases.
Genetics Dec 11, 2012 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0
A study combining genetic data with brain imaging, designed to identify genes associated with the amyloid plaque deposits found in Alzheimer's disease patients, has not only identified the APOE gene—long ...
Alzheimer's disease & dementia Feb 20, 2013 | 5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Mutations in HIV that develop during the first few weeks of infection may play a critical role in undermining a successful early immune response, a finding that reveals the importance of vaccines targeting regions of the ...
HIV & AIDS Mar 08, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
Fifteen new genetic regions associated with coronary artery disease have been identified by a large, international consortium of scientists—including researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine—taking a ...
Genetics Dec 02, 2012 | 4.5 / 5 (2) | 0 |
In classical genetics, the genome of a diploid organism including eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a gamete; thereby, a regular somatic cell contains two full sets of genomes. In haploid organisms, including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and mitochondria, a cell contains only a single set of the genome, usually in a single circular or contiguous linear DNA (or RNA for retroviruses). In modern molecular biology the genome of an organism is its hereditary information encoded in DNA (or, for retroviruses, RNA).
The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA. The term was adapted in 1920 by Hans Winkler, Professor of Botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests the name to be a portmanteau of the words gene and chromosome; however, many related -ome words already existed, such as biome and rhizome, forming a vocabulary into which genome fits systematically.
More precisely, the genome of an organism is a complete genetic sequence on one set of chromosomes; for example, one of the two sets that a diploid individual carries in every somatic cell. The term genome can be applied specifically to mean that stored on a complete set of nuclear DNA (i.e., the "nuclear genome") but can also be applied to that stored within organelles that contain their own DNA, as with the mitochondrial genome or the chloroplast genome. Additionally, the genome can comprise nonchromosomal genetic elements such as viruses, plasmids, and transposable elements. When people say that the genome of a sexually reproducing species has been "sequenced", typically they are referring to a determination of the sequences of one set of autosomes and one of each type of sex chromosome, which together represent both of the possible sexes. Even in species that exist in only one sex, what is described as "a genome sequence" may be a composite read from the chromosomes of various individuals. In general use, the phrase "genetic makeup" is sometimes used conversationally to mean the genome of a particular individual or organism. The study of the global properties of genomes of related organisms is usually referred to as genomics, which distinguishes it from genetics which generally studies the properties of single genes or groups of genes.
Both the number of base pairs and the number of genes vary widely from one species to another, and there is little connection between the two (an observation known as the C-value paradox). At present, the highest known number of genes is around 60,000, for the protozoan causing trichomoniasis (see List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes), almost three times as many as in the human genome.
An analogy to the human genome stored on DNA is that of instructions stored in a book:
For more information about Genome, read the full article at
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.