News tagged with genome
Swiss scientists reveal the mechanism responsible for aging hidden deep within mitochondria—and dramatically slow it down in worms by administering antibiotics to the young.
Medical research May 22, 2013 | 4.9 / 5 (13) | 2 |
A new study looking at the genomes of more than 13,000 men identified four new genetic variants associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer, the most commonly diagnosed type in young men today. The findings from ...
Genetics May 12, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—How does San Francisco Giants slugger Pablo Sandoval swat a 95 mph fastball, or tennis icon Venus Williams see the oncoming ball, let alone return her sister Serena's 120 mph serves? For ...
Neuroscience May 08, 2013 | 3.2 / 5 (6) | 0 |
A new study led by researchers from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the UK has, for the first time, used genome sequencing technology to track the changes in a bacterial population ...
Genetics May 05, 2013 | not rated yet | 1 |
(Medical Xpress)—Recent scientific papers from China suggest a vigilant watch should be kept on the development of bird flu viruses, as a new strain has been identified and previously known viruses have ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes May 03, 2013 | 3 / 5 (2) | 1 |
Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project has identified mutations responsible for more than half of a subtype of childhood brain tumor that takes a high toll on patients. Researchers also found evidence the tumors ...
Genetics Apr 14, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
As the body ages, the physical effects are notable; wrinkles in the skin appear, physical exertion becomes harder. But there are also less visible processes going on. Inside aging brains there is another phenomenon at work, ...
Neuroscience Apr 08, 2013 | 5 / 5 (3) | 0 |
Researchers have solved a 60-year-old mystery by identifying a gene that can cause rejection, kidney failure and even death in some blood transfusion patients. In this study, published in Nature Genetics online ...
Genetics Apr 07, 2013 | 5 / 5 (9) | 0 |
Comparing mouse and human immune systems: Few differences charted in map to translate mouse findings to humans
(Medical Xpress)—It is a familiar note struck when authors conclude their reports on experiments conducted in mouse models: They suggest caution when translating their findings from mouse to human. A variation ...
Medical research Apr 02, 2013 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker.
Psychology & Psychiatry Mar 27, 2013 | not rated yet | 0 |
(Medical Xpress)—The ambitious and controversial Brain Activity Map (BAM), initiative instituted by a small group of researchers last year, has been steadily gaining momentum. Earlier this week, a proof ...
Neuroscience Mar 22, 2013 | 5 / 5 (5) | 1 |
Building on earlier pioneering work by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, an international consortium of university researchers has produced the most comprehensive virtual reconstruction ...
Medical research Mar 03, 2013 | 3.8 / 5 (5) | 4 |
Though it's most often associated with disorders like diabetes, Harvard researchers have shown how the signaling pathway of insulin and insulin-like peptides plays another critical role in the body – helping ...
Neuroscience Feb 26, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 0 |
Scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) have identified several genes linked to human neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, in the ...
Genetics Feb 24, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
A study of young twins in Malawi, in sub-Saharan Africa, finds that bacteria living in the intestine are an underlying cause of a form of severe acute childhood malnutrition.
Medical research Jan 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (4) | 1 |
In classical genetics, the genome of a diploid organism including eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a gamete; thereby, a regular somatic cell contains two full sets of genomes. In haploid organisms, including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and mitochondria, a cell contains only a single set of the genome, usually in a single circular or contiguous linear DNA (or RNA for retroviruses). In modern molecular biology the genome of an organism is its hereditary information encoded in DNA (or, for retroviruses, RNA).
The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA. The term was adapted in 1920 by Hans Winkler, Professor of Botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests the name to be a portmanteau of the words gene and chromosome; however, many related -ome words already existed, such as biome and rhizome, forming a vocabulary into which genome fits systematically.
More precisely, the genome of an organism is a complete genetic sequence on one set of chromosomes; for example, one of the two sets that a diploid individual carries in every somatic cell. The term genome can be applied specifically to mean that stored on a complete set of nuclear DNA (i.e., the "nuclear genome") but can also be applied to that stored within organelles that contain their own DNA, as with the mitochondrial genome or the chloroplast genome. Additionally, the genome can comprise nonchromosomal genetic elements such as viruses, plasmids, and transposable elements. When people say that the genome of a sexually reproducing species has been "sequenced", typically they are referring to a determination of the sequences of one set of autosomes and one of each type of sex chromosome, which together represent both of the possible sexes. Even in species that exist in only one sex, what is described as "a genome sequence" may be a composite read from the chromosomes of various individuals. In general use, the phrase "genetic makeup" is sometimes used conversationally to mean the genome of a particular individual or organism. The study of the global properties of genomes of related organisms is usually referred to as genomics, which distinguishes it from genetics which generally studies the properties of single genes or groups of genes.
Both the number of base pairs and the number of genes vary widely from one species to another, and there is little connection between the two (an observation known as the C-value paradox). At present, the highest known number of genes is around 60,000, for the protozoan causing trichomoniasis (see List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes), almost three times as many as in the human genome.
An analogy to the human genome stored on DNA is that of instructions stored in a book:
For more information about Genome, read the full article at
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.