News tagged with glucose metabolism

Related topics: diabetes · type 2 diabetes · insulin resistance · glucose

Vitamin D doesn't improve glucose measures

(HealthDay)—Weekly doses of vitamin D do not improve oral glucose tolerance or markers of glycemic status among those at risk for diabetes, according to a study published online Sept. 26 in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.

Oct 05, 2016
popularity0 comments 2

Feed a virus, starve a bacterial infection?

A new study puts some old folk wisdom to "feed a cold and starve a fever" to the test. In mouse models of disease, Yale researchers looked at the effects of providing nutrients during infection and found opposing effects ...

Sep 08, 2016
popularity3 comments 0

Diabetes as a risk factor of air pollution

Exposure to air pollution at the place of residence increases the risk of developing insulin resistance as a pre-diabetic state of type 2 diabetes. Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München, in collaboration with colleagues ...

Sep 08, 2016
popularity8 comments 0

TBC1D4 mutation common in north american inuit

(HealthDay)—More than one-quarter of Canadian and Alaskan Inuit have the TBC1D4 mutation resulting in elevated postprandial glucose, and those with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have increased risk of remaining undiagnosed, ...

Aug 31, 2016
popularity0 comments 0

China facing epidemic of heart disease, stroke

A 20-year rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China appears to have been spurred largely by increases in high blood pressure, according to a new study from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Increasing body mass ...

Aug 15, 2016
popularity4 comments 0

Carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.

The most important carbohydrate is glucose, a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species: plants synthesize carbohydrates from atmospheric gases by photosynthesis storing the absorbed energy internally, often in the form of starch or lipids. Plant components are eaten by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of carbohydrate yields approximately 4 kcal of energy and from lipids about 9 kcal. Energy obtained from metabolism (eg, oxidation of glucose) is usually stored temporarily within cells in the form of ATP. Organisms capable of aerobic respiration metabolize glucose and oxygen to release energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.

Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acid portions of proteins that are used for fuel. In animals, the most important carbohydrate is glucose; so much so, that the level of glucose is used as the main control for the central metabolic hormone, insulin. Starch, and cellulose in a few organisms (eg, termites, ruminants, and some bacteria), being both glucose polymers are disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into into its monosaccharides components; many animals lack this enzyme in adulthood.

Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with Glycosidic bonds for structural support (e.g. chitin, cellulose) or for energy storage (e.g. glycogen, starch). However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex. In most organisms, excess carbohydrates are regularly catabolised to form Acetyl-CoA, which is a feed stock for the fatty acid synthesis pathway; fatty acids, triglycerides, and other lipids are commonly used for long-term energy storage. The hydrophobic character of lipids makes them a much more compact form of energy storage than hydrophilic carbohydrates. However, animals, including humans, lack the necessary enzymatic machinery and so do not synthesize glucose from lipids. <ref, G Cooper, The Cell, American Society of Microbiology, p 72>

All carbohydrates share a general formula of approximately CnH2nOn; glucose is C6H12O6. Monosaccharides may be chemically bonded together to form disaccharides such as sucrose and longer polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA

Subscribe to rss feed