News tagged with polio
Dr. Hilary Koprowski, the Polish-born researcher who developed the first successful oral vaccination for polio, died this week at his Philadelphia home. He was 96.
Medications Apr 14, 2013 | 4.7 / 5 (3) | 1
(AP) -- Parents who do not allow their children to be vaccinated against polio now risk jail time for defying a government order aimed at ensuring that the disease is eradicated from Africa's most populous nation, authorities ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Jul 29, 2011 | 4 / 5 (2) | 0
The Georgia Institute of Technology will receive funding through Grand Challenges Explorations, an initiative created by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that enables researchers worldwide to test unorthodox ...
Medical research Nov 07, 2011 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
(AP) -- India will celebrate a full year since its last reported case of polio on Friday, a major victory in a global eradication effort that appeared to be stalled just a few years ago.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Jan 12, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Despite the many overwhelming successes of vaccines in the past century, including the eradication of smallpox and near-eradication of polio, many adults do not know how vaccines work, or even realize that the benefits of ...
Immunology Mar 14, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 1
(AP)—Software magnate and philanthropist Bill Gates, who is helping spearhead a global campaign to eradicate polio, said Thursday he hopes that by 2015 no child in the world will be paralyzed by the disease and by 2018 ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Sep 27, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Two Nigerian journalists and a cleric were granted bail on Thursday after being charged over a controversial radio programme on polio vaccines days before deadly attacks on polio clinics.
Other Feb 12, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 1
Sixty years after the first successful polio vaccine trial, the disease has been wiped out in much of the world, but violence, conspiracy theories and lack of cash keep it from disappearing.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Mar 25, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 1
A new strategy for ending polio worldwide aims to boost security for violence-plagued vaccine workers and halt polio outbreaks by the end of next year, global health authorities said Tuesday.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 02, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Bill Gates announced in Abu Dhabi on Thursday his foundation will contribute $1.8 billion to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, a third of the total funds needed.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 25, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
The intestinal ecosystem is even more dynamic than previously thought, according to two studies by UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers published in the latest issue of Science.
Inflammatory disorders Oct 19, 2011 | 4 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route. The term derives from the Greek poliós (πολιός), meaning "grey", myelós (µυελός), referring to the "spinal cord", and the suffix -itis, which denotes inflammation.
Although approximately 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream. In about 1% of cases the virus enters the central nervous system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Different types of paralysis may occur, depending on the nerves involved. Spinal polio is the most common form, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs. Bulbar polio leads to weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis.
Poliomyelitis was first recognized as a distinct condition by Jakob Heine in 1840. Its causative agent, poliovirus, was identified in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner. Although major polio epidemics were unknown before the late 19th century, polio was one of the most dreaded childhood diseases of the 20th century. Polio epidemics have crippled thousands of people, mostly young children; the disease has caused paralysis and death for much of human history. Polio had existed for thousands of years quietly as an endemic pathogen until the 1880s, when major epidemics began to occur in Europe; soon after, widespread epidemics appeared in the United States.
By 1910, much of the world experienced a dramatic increase in polio cases and frequent epidemics became regular events, primarily in cities during the summer months. These epidemics—which left thousands of children and adults paralyzed—provided the impetus for a "Great Race" towards the development of a vaccine. Developed in the 1950s, polio vaccines are credited with reducing the global number of polio cases per year from many hundreds of thousands to around a thousand. Enhanced vaccination efforts led by the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and Rotary International could result in global eradication of the disease.
For more information about Poliomyelitis, read the full article at
This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.