Medical research

One-stop test offers instant hepatitis B diagnosis

Viruses are sneaky beings. As the coronavirus pandemic is demonstrating, they cross borders quickly and can be highly contagious before symptoms of disease break out. In many cases of infection, a clear path of transmission ...

Overweight & Obesity

Causes of childhood obesity worldwide vary, study finds

Childhood obesity is not just a public health concern in western countries; it is rising across the world, particularly in poor and low-income countries. But the factors causing childhood obesity are quite different for wealthier ...

Medical research

Gut enzyme IAP found to prevent aging and frailty in animal models

It's now accepted that gut-barrier dysfunction and gut-derived chronic inflammation play a role in human aging, but how that process is regulated is still largely a mystery. A team led by Richard Hodin, MD, chief of the Division ...

Cardiology

Too much salt weakens the immune system

A high-salt diet is not only bad for blood pressure, but also for the immune system. This is the conclusion of a current study under the leadership of the University Hospital Bonn. Mice fed a high-salt diet were found to ...

Medical research

Glucose acts as a double edged sword on longevity factor SIRT1

Feeding and fasting cycles exert control over metabolism and energy utilization. Aberrations are known to cause metabolic diseases, liver dysfunctions and accelerated aging. Expression and activity of the anti-aging factor ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

A novel cause of fatty liver in lean people

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is mostly diagnosed in overweight and obese people. However, severe forms of NAFLD can also be detected in rare genetic diseases such as lipodystrophy or in patients with HIV, putting ...

Medical research

Using 'organs-on-a-chip' to model complicated diseases

MIT biological engineers have created a multitissue model that lets them study the relationships between different organs and the immune system, on a specialized microfluidic platform seeded with human cells.

Genetics

Parental diet affects sperm and health of future offspring

When parents eat low-protein or high-fat diets, it can lead to metabolic disorders in their adult offspring. Now, an international team led by researchers at the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research (CPR) has identified ...

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Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patient's liver. The parameters measured include PT/INR, aPTT, albumin, billirubin (direct and indirect) and others. According to some, liver transaminases (AST/ALT (SGOT/SGPT) are not liver function tests, but are biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function.[citation needed] Other sources include transaminases. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but it is vital that these diseases be detected early. Hepatic (liver) involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. This testing is performed by a medical technologist on a patient's serum or plasma sample obtained by phlebotomy. Some tests are associated with functionality (e.g., albumin); some with cellular integrity (e.g., transaminase) and some with conditions linked to the biliary tract (gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase). Several biochemical tests are useful in the evaluation and management of patients with hepatic dysfunction. These tests can be used to (1) detect the presence of liver disease, (2) distinguish among different types of liver disorders, (3) gauge the extent of known liver damage, and (4) follow the response to treatment. Some or all of these measurements are also carried out (usually about twice a year for routine cases) on those individuals taking certain medications- anticonvulsants are a notable example- in order to ensure that the medications are not damaging the person's liver.

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