Scientists create illusion of having 3 arms

February 23, 2011
Scientists create illusion of having 3 arms
Arvid Guterstam conducting an experiment.

(PhysOrg.com) -- How we experience our own bodies is a classical question in psychology and neuroscience. It has long been believed that our body image is limited by our innate body plan – in other words that we cannot experience having more than one head, two arms and two legs. However, brain scientists at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have now shown that it is possible to make healthy volunteers experience having three arms at the same time.

In a novel paper published in the online scientific journal PLoS ONE they describe how it is possible to create an illusion of owning three arms, under controlled conditions in a laboratory. The experiment involves the participant sitting at a table and having a realistic prosthetic arm placed next to their right arm. The subject then sees her two real arms and the extra prosthetic arm, made out of rubber. To produce the feeling of owning the rubber arm, the scientist touches the subject's right hand and the rubber hand with two small brushes at corresponding location – synchronizing the strokes as perfectly as possible.

"What happens then is that a conflict arises in the brain concerning which of the right hands belongs to the participant's body", says Arvid Guterstam, one of the scientists behind the study. "What one could expect is that only one of the hands is experienced as one's own, presumably the real arm. But what we found, surprisingly, is that the brain solves this conflict by accepting both right hands as part of the , and the subjects experience having an extra third arm."

The study consists of a series of experiments; in total 154 healthy volunteers were tested.

To prove that the prosthetic arm was truly experienced as a third arm, the scientist 'threatened' either the prosthetic hand or the real hand with a kitchen knife, and measuring the degree of sweating of the palm as a physiological response to this provocation. The results demonstrated that the subjects had the same stress response when the prosthetic hand was threatened as when the real was, but only during the periods when they experienced the third arm illusion. For instance, there was no stress reaction when the prosthetic right arm was replaced with a left arm or a prosthetic foot.

The results of the study may benefit patients by creating new applications in prosthetics research.

"It may be possible in the future to offer a stroke patient, who has become paralysed on one side of the body, a that can be used and experienced as his own, while the paralysed arm remains within the patient's body image", says Henrik Ehrsson, who has led the study at the Department of Neuroscience. "It is also conceivable that people with demanding work situations could benefit of an extra arm, such as firemen during rescue operations, or paramedics in the field".

More information: Guterstam A, Petkova VI, Ehrsson HH (2011) The Illusion of Owning a Third Arm. PLoS ONE 6(2): e17208. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017208

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Do bullies have more sex?

December 14, 2017
Adolescents who are willing to exploit others for personal gain are more likely to bully and have sex than those who score higher on a measure of honesty and humility. This is according to a study in Springer's journal Evolutionary ...

Children's screen-time guidelines too restrictive, according to new research

December 14, 2017
Digital screen use is a staple of contemporary life for adults and children, whether they are browsing on laptops and smartphones, or watching TV. Paediatricians and scientists have long expressed concerns about the impact ...

The iceberg model of self-harm

December 14, 2017
Researchers have created a model of self-harm that shows high levels of the problem in the community, especially in young girls, and the need for school-based prevention measures.

Eating together as a family helps children feel better, physically and mentally

December 14, 2017
Children who routinely eat their meals together with their family are more likely to experience long-term physical and mental health benefits, a new Canadian study shows.

Anti-stress compound reduces obesity and diabetes

December 13, 2017
For the first time, scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich could prove that a stress protein found in muscle has a diabetes promoting effect. This finding could pave the way to a completely new treatment ...

Encouraging risk-taking in children may reduce the prevalence of childhood anxiety

December 13, 2017
A new international study suggests that parents who employ challenging parent behavioural (CPB) methods – active physical and verbal behaviours that encourage children to push their limits – are likely protecting their ...

3 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

RobertKarlStonjek
1 / 5 (1) Feb 23, 2011
Is there an Olympic rule specifying the maximum number of legs an athlete can have?
And what possibilities for the massage parlour (both at the health spa and the naughty red-lit ones)...
Eikka
5 / 5 (1) Feb 24, 2011
What about body parts that aren't familiar like an arm or a third leg?

If you had a tail or a tentacle, would you adopt it into the body plan?
SmartK8
not rated yet Feb 24, 2011
What about having two left hands ? Just hide the real right arm on the picture, and stroke the fake hand (in its current position), and it will be linked to a feeling in the left hand. Thus two left hands. Also the dummy hand should have finger layout of the left hand.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.