A better way to remember

June 17, 2011
This graphic shows protocols for massed (M) and spaced (S0.5h-S1d-2) learning. Mice were trained their optokinetic eye movements by 1 hour of concentrated protocol or 2.5 hours-8 days of spaced protocols. Credit: RIKEN

Scientists and educators alike have long known that cramming is not an effective way to remember things. With their latest findings, researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan, studying eye movement response in trained mice, have elucidated the neurological mechanism explaining why this is so. Published in the Journal of Neuroscience, their results suggest that protein synthesis in the cerebellum plays a key role in memory consolidation, shedding light on the fundamental neurological processes governing how we remember.

The "spacing effect", first discovered over a century ago, describes the observation that humans and animals are able to remember things more effectively if learning is distributed over a long period of time rather than performed all at once. The effect is believed to be closely connected to the process of , whereby short-term memories are stabilized into long-term ones, yet the underlying neural mechanism involved has long remained unclear.

To clarify this mechanism, the researchers developed a technique based around the phenomenon of horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR), a compensatory eye movement which can be used to quantify the effects of motor learning. Studying HOKR in mice, they found that the long-term effects of learning are strongly dependent on whether training is performed all at once ("massed training"), or in spaced intervals ("spaced training"): whereas gains incurred in massed training disappeared within 24 hours, those gained in spaced training were sustained longer.

This grahic illustrates time course and retention of motor learning induced by the massed (A) and spaced (B-E) training protocols. Learning occurred similarly immediately after the end of these 5 protocols. However, the retention of memory of learning, examined 24 h after the end training, was impaired in the massed protocol, but not in any of 4 spaced protocols (F). *, statistically significant at P < 0.05. ns, non-significant. Credit: RIKEN

Earlier research suggested that this spacing effect is the product of the transfer of the memory trace from the flocculus, a cerebellar cortex region which connects to motor nuclei involved in eye movement, to another brain region known as the vestibular nuclei. To verify this idea, the team administered to the flocculus and studied its effect on learning. While learning gains in mice that had undergone one hour of massed training were eliminated, those in mice that had undergone the same amount of training spaced out over a four hour period were unaffected.

This graphic presents a summary of the findings. Pharmacological reversible shutdown experiments of the cerebellar cortex revealed that the memory produced by massed learning is maintained in the cerebellar cortex, whereas the memory produced by spaced learning is maintained in the cerebellar nuclei (VN), indicating "trans-synapse memory trace transfer" occurs by spaced learning. Because local applications of protein synthesis inhibitors (anisomycin or actinomycin D) blocked the spaced learning, the proteins synthesized during spaced training protocols may play a key role in trans-synapse memory trace transfer. Credit: RIKEN

Explaining this observation, the researchers found that the spacing effect was impaired when mice were infused with anisomycin and actinomycin D, antibiotics which inhibit . This final discovery suggests that proteins produced during training play a key role in the formation of long-term memories, providing for the first time a neurological explanation for the well-known benefits of spaced learning - as well as a great excuse to take more breaks.

Explore further: Scientists identify mechanism of long-term memory

Related Stories

Scientists identify mechanism of long-term memory

April 13, 2011
Using advanced imaging technology, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have identified a change in chemical influx into a specific set of neurons in the common fruit fly that is fundamental ...

Recommended for you

'Simple, but powerful' model reveals mechanisms behind neuron development

December 18, 2017
All things must come to an end. This is particularly true for neurons, especially the extensions called axons that transmit electrochemical signals to other nerve cells. Without controlled termination of individual neuron ...

Restless leg syndrome risk factor for heart-related death

December 18, 2017
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related death among women, according to research published online today (Dec. 15) in the January 2018 issue of Neurology, the medical ...

Study finds graspable objects grab attention more than images of objects do

December 15, 2017
Does having the potential to act upon an object have a unique influence on behavior and brain responses to the object? That is the question Jacqueline Snow, assistant professor of psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno, ...

Journaling inspires altruism through an attitude of gratitude

December 14, 2017
Gratitude does more than help maintain good health. New research at the University of Oregon finds that regularly noting feelings of gratitude in a journal leads to increased altruism.

Little understood cell helps mice see color

December 14, 2017
Researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have discovered that color vision in mice is far more complex than originally thought, opening the door to experiments that could potentially lead to new treatments ...

Scientists chart how brain signals connect to neurons

December 14, 2017
Scientists at Johns Hopkins have used supercomputers to create an atomic scale map that tracks how the signaling chemical glutamate binds to a neuron in the brain. The findings, say the scientists, shed light on the dynamic ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

hush1
not rated yet Jun 17, 2011
Fine.
Then "Photographic memory" is "massed learning" the cerebellar cortex as "storage"?

"To verify this idea, the team administered local anesthetic..."
Yes.

"This final discovery suggests that proteins produced during training play a key role in the formation of long-term memories, provides for the first time a neurological explanation for ... learning..."

Yes.
Kudos.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.