Answer isn't always on the 'tip of the tongue' for older adults

June 15, 2012

Has your memory failed you today, such as struggling to recall a word that's "on the tip of your tongue?" If so, you're not alone.

New University of Michigan research indicates that "tip-of-the-tongue" errors happen often to adults ages 65-92. In a study of 105 healthy, highly-educated , 61 percent reported this memory mishap.

The study's participants completed a checklist of the memory errors made in the last 24 hours, as well as several other tests. About half of them reported making other errors that may be related to absent-mindedness, such as having to re-read a sentence because they forgot what it said, or forgetting where they placed an item.

The findings, which appear in the journal Aging, , and Cognition, may help brain-training programs target the people experience in daily life.

"Right now, many training programs focus on the age differences in memory and thinking that we see in laboratory studies," said Cindy Lustig, U-M and the study's senior author. "However, those may not translate to the performance failures that are most common in ."

When people are tested in the lab and have nothing to rely on but their own memories, typically do better than older adults, she said. However, when these studies are conducted in real-world settings, older adults sometimes outperform young adults at things like remembering appointments because the former are likely to use memory supports such as calendars, lists and alarms.

"When we looked at how people performed on standard , we found the usual age differences," she said. "People in their 80s and 90s performed worse than those in their 60s and early 70s."

In contrast, no increase in daily memory errors was found based on age.

Meanwhile, researchers hope that a better understanding of the errors people are still making can improve training program efforts.

"We wanted to identify which errors still occur despite changes people might be making in their environment and routine," Lustig said. "That's where it may be especially important to change the person."

Lustig cautioned that an elderly person occasionally forgetting a name does not mean he's in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease or other dementias.

"Everybody forgets," she said. "However, our findings suggest that certain types of memory errors may be especially important to monitor for increases, which then should be discussed with a clinician."

Lustig said future research should identify how people change their lives to avoid errors. If people restrict their activities to avoid memory errors, it could affect their independence.

Explore further: How we create false memories: Assessing memory performance in older adults

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3 comments

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trekgeek1
not rated yet Jun 15, 2012
Ages 65 to 92? I'm 26 and constantly find myself struggling to remember an actors name or some other vocabulary word. It always happens when someone asks me "what was the name of the actor in that one movie". I can see the face and even remember some useless fact about their life from Wikipedia, but not their name. It's really ......uh.........what's the word I'm looking for? You know, it means ..........frustrating!
MandoZink
not rated yet Jun 15, 2012
I would like to know the neurological basis for knowing fully well that you know something, yet you cannot recall it. How is it that you are aware that you actually do know un-recollectible information?
trekgeek1
not rated yet Jun 16, 2012
Good point. I guess like a computer program may know. You know their face, movies they were in, approximate age, etc. Your mind knows that you have information on this person and concludes that some information is more likely to be known. Names are probably the most likely piece of information to have on anyone you know so you conclude you must know their name. So a computer analogy might be that you know a memory location has data in it, but you can't access the data. You know that the memory location is not empty though. That's my theory based on about zero knowledge of neurology.

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