New study identifies large gaps in lifetime earnings of specialist and primary-care physicians

September 28, 2012

A national study has found that earnings over the course of the careers of primary-care physicians averaged as much as $2.8 million less than the earnings of their specialist colleagues, potentially making primary care a less attractive choice for medical school graduates and exacerbating the already significant shortage of medical generalists.

The results, published online in the journal Care, lead the study's authors to recommend reducing disparities in physician pay to ensure adequate access to primary care, which has been shown to improve health and reduce health-care costs.

"The need for primary-care providers is greater than ever before and expected to grow as millions more Americans become insured under the Act," said J. Paul Leigh, lead author of the study, professor of public health sciences and researcher with the UC Davis Center for and Research. "Without a better payment structure, there will be extraordinary demands on an already scarce resource."

According to projections by the Association of American Medical Colleges, the nation is likely to face a shortage of more than 65,000 primary-care physicians by 2025.

For the nationwide study, a follow-up to 2010 research by Leigh and his colleagues on differences in annual wages by specialty, the investigators compared lifetime to demonstrate how annual wage differences accumulate over physicians' careers. The earnings data came from the 2004-2005 Community Tracking Study, a periodic evaluation of physician demographic, geographic and market trends.

To ensure valid comparisons, the data were adjusted to account for factors that affect earnings, including age, sex, race, board certification, graduation from a foreign medical school, rural residence, employment by an academic medical school and residency program length.

Incomes were then evaluated for more than 6,000 doctors practicing in 41 specialties. When merged into four broad career categories, in surgery, and pediatric subspecialties, and all other medical specialties averaged from $761,402 to $1,587,722 higher than in primary care:

  • Surgery: $4,588,249
  • Internal medicine subspecialties and pediatric subspecialties: $4,100,183
  • All other medical specialties: $3,761,930
  • Primary care (geriatrics, family practice, general practice, general internal medicine and general pediatrics): $3,000,527

The earnings differences were more dramatic when compared as 41 separate specialties. Medical oncologists, for instance, earn up to $7,127,543 during a 35-year career, while family medicine practitioners earn as low as $2,838,637.

Leigh surmised that one reason for the earnings differences is the tendency for Medicare administrators to utilize recommendations from an American Medical Association committee on physician pay that price specialist procedures far higher than primary-care office visits. Private insurance companies, in turn, tend to adopt Medicare pay rates.

The authors noted that efforts are under way to resolve physician pay differences. For example, the Affordable Care Act requires states to pay primary-care physicians no less than 100 percent of Medicare payment rates for primary-care services provided to Medicaid patients. The study's senior author, Richard Kravitz, a UC Davis professor of internal medicine, also serves on an independent commission to assess physician pay.

Kravitz and Leigh suggest that legislators, health-insurance administrators, medical-group directors, health-care plan managers and executives, and health policymakers take action to redesign the payment structure for medical care.

"These huge lifetime pay disparities have to be discouraging for medical students considering primary care as a career," said Kravitz. "If we truly value , we need payment schemes that don't send the opposite message."

Explore further: Large differences in lifetime physician earnings

Related Stories

Large differences in lifetime physician earnings

September 19, 2012
(Medical Xpress)—A national study has found that earnings over the course of the careers of primary-care physicians averaged as much as $2.8 million less than the earnings of their specialist colleagues, potentially making ...

Rising barriers to primary care send many Americans to the emergency department

August 9, 2011
A shortage in the number and availability of primary care physicians may continue to mean rising numbers of emergency department visits, despite the expanded health insurance coverage required by the 2010 Patient Protection ...

Debt and income concerns deter medical students from primary care careers

September 21, 2012
(Medical Xpress)—Primary care physicians—America's front line healthcare practitioners—are usually the first to diagnose illness, refer patients to specialists and coordinate care. Yet, despite that critical role, primary ...

Recommended for you

Brain disease seen in most football players in large report

July 25, 2017
Research on 202 former football players found evidence of a brain disease linked to repeated head blows in nearly all of them, from athletes in the National Football League, college and even high school.

Safety of medical devices not often evaluated by sex, age, or race

July 25, 2017
Researchers at Yale and the University of California-San Francisco have found that few medical devices are analyzed to consider the influence of their users' sex, age, or race on safety and effectiveness.

Why you should consider more than looks when choosing a fitness tracker

July 25, 2017
A UNSW study of five popular physical activity monitors, including Fitbit and Jawbone models, has found their accuracy differs with the speed of activity, and where they are worn.

Dog walking could be key to ensuring activity in later life

July 24, 2017
A new study has shown that regularly walking a dog boosts levels of physical activity in older people, especially during the winter.

Alcohol to claim 63,000 lives over next five years, experts warn

July 24, 2017
Alcohol consumption will cause 63,000 deaths in England over the next five years – the equivalent of 35 deaths a day – according to a new report from the University of Sheffield Alcohol Research Group.

Alcohol boosts recall of earlier learning

July 24, 2017
Drinking alcohol improves memory for information learned before the drinking episode began, new research suggests.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.