Popular consumer cookbooks generally define the "doneness" of shrimp by the surface color change (from white to pink) and for salmon by the flakiness of the center. However, these indicators make the products appear to be done before fully cooked. Also, fish can easily be overcooked and dry.
A study in the February 2013 issue of Journal of Food Science, published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), determined the optimum cooking times needed to achieve microbial safety while also maintaining high quality in shrimp and salmon for a variety of common cooking methods as follows:
- Boiling Extra Jumbo Shrimp—1 minute and 40 seconds
- Baking Extra Jumbo Shrimp—3 minutes and 53 seconds
- Boiling Colossal Shrimp—2 minutes and 39 seconds
- Baking Colossal Shrimp—6 minutes and 18 seconds
- Baking Salmon—18 minutes and 52 seconds
- Pan Frying Salmon—6 minutes and 39 seconds
All of the products reached the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended internal temperature necessary for destroying Salmonella, which is 145.4 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 seconds. Product quality was based on color, texture, juiciness, and weight.