Diffeomorphometry and geodesic positioning systems for human anatomy

April 3, 2014, World Scientific Publishing
This is the Geodesic Positioning of 25 subjects in AHA atlas coordinates with colors representing AHA parcellation; black area located in anterior apical segment 13 showing structural phenotype difference between ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy at end-systole. Bottom shows smaller wall thickening during maximum contraction at end-systole at the location of infarction (segment 13) in ischemic population as signaled by Jacobian of geodesic coordinates indexed to the segment. Left: mean Jacobian for ischemic population, Right: mean Jacobian for the non-ischemic population. Note ischemic group has significantly smaller myocardial tissue volume. (Cardiac study done in collaboration with Dr. Robert G. Weiss, Director of DW Reynolds Clinical Cardiovascular Research Center in the division of Cardiology in the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and Dr. Siamak Ardekani. Data collected on an Aquilion 64(32) multi-detector computed tomography scanner, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Japan; in plane resolution 0.36 × 0.36 mm (0.45 × 0.45 mm), out of plane thickness = 0.5 mm). Credit: Technology journal

A team of researchers from the Center for Imaging Science at the Johns Hopkins University and the CMLA of the École Normale Supérieure Cachan have demonstrated new algorithmic technologies for the parametric representation of human shape and form. Coupled with advanced imaging technologies, this presents opportunities for tracking soft-tissue deformations associated with cardiovascular studies, radiation treatment planning in Oncology, and neurodegenerative brain illnesses. The software algorithms provide tools for basic science and pre-clinical investigations for synchronizing structural and functional information across anatomical scales, allowing for the building of BrainClouds of physiological information in human brain mapping and thus connecting information across multiple anatomical and physiological scales.

"This is a remarkable combination of algorithm development and software technology that provides the basis for extending classical notions used for the positioning of rigid bodies adapted for the positioning of deformable bodies appropriate to human coordinates systems. Connecting this to modern machine learning algorithms opens the door for future research and clinical applications in which high throughput massive databases of structural and functional anatomy can be indexed and searched, analogous to the current state of the art in GoogleMaps", says Michael I. Miller Ph.D., a professor of Biomedical Engineering of the Johns Hopkins University and senior author on this paper.

By linking notions from Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics of rigid bodies, the investigators have defined human shape as a Riemannian metric space generalizing D'Arcy Thompson's classical formulation of mathematical morphology of shape and form, with the metric structure defined by the geodesic flow of coordinates connecting one shape to another.

"Once human shape is embedded in these Riemannian or geodesic coordinates, then can be indexed and searched", Miller continued. "This is a beautiful example of how advances in imaging technology coupled to computational and algorithmic methods are enabling both biological discovery and clinical applications."

Using large volumes of spatial and temporal data being generated via high throughput imaging systems, the investigators in the United States and Europe are exploiting these geodesic positioning systems to uncover new biomarkers and diagnostic parameters that may provide clues to fundamental disease mechanisms in several neuropsychiatric illnesses, including dementia, Huntingdon's, schizophrenia, autism and mood disorder diseases.

At the same time another team from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, led by Drs. Susumu Mori and Thierry Huisman in collaboration with Jonathan Lewin, the director of the Department of Radiology, is deploying a Pediatric Brain Cloud.

Explore further: Children's brain imaging data bank could become a 'Google' tool for doctors

More information: www.worldscientific.com/doi/pd … 42/S2339547814500010

Related Stories

Children's brain imaging data bank could become a 'Google' tool for doctors

January 10, 2014
(Medical Xpress)—When an MRI scan uncovers an unusual architecture or shape in a child's brain, it's cause for concern: The malformation may be a sign of disease. But deciding whether that odd-looking anatomy is worrisome ...

New guidance system could improve minimally invasive surgery

March 27, 2014
Johns Hopkins researchers have devised a computerized process that could make minimally invasive surgery more accurate and streamlined using equipment already common in the operating room.

SPECT/MR molecular imaging system makes its debut

June 11, 2013
The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's 2013 Annual Meetingmarks the unveiling of the successful application of a new preclinical hybrid molecular imaging system—single photon emission tomography and magnetic ...

Brain scans don't lie about age: Timing of brain maturation is more tightly controlled than previously known

August 16, 2012
A national team of researchers led by investigators at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have developed a multidimensional set of brain measurements that, when taken together, can accurately assess ...

ORNL's awake imaging device moves diagnostics field forward

April 4, 2013
A technology being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory promises to provide clear images of the brains of children, the elderly and people with Parkinson's and other diseases without the use of uncomfortable or intrusive ...

Combination of two imaging techniques allows new insights into brain function

August 26, 2013
The ability to measure brain functions non-invasively is important both for clinical diagnoses and research in Neurology and Psychology. Two main imaging techniques are used: positron emission tomography (PET), which reveals ...

Recommended for you

Research reveals atomic-level changes in ALS-linked protein

January 18, 2018
For the first time, researchers have described atom-by-atom changes in a family of proteins linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a group of brain disorders known as frontotemporal dementia and degenerative diseases ...

Fragile X finding shows normal neurons that interact poorly

January 18, 2018
Neurons in mice afflicted with the genetic defect that causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS) appear similar to those in healthy mice, but these neurons fail to interact normally, resulting in the long-known cognitive impairments, ...

How your brain remembers what you had for dinner last night

January 17, 2018
Confirming earlier computational models, researchers at University of California San Diego and UC San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues in Arizona and Louisiana, report that episodic memories are encoded in the hippocampus ...

Recording a thought's fleeting trip through the brain

January 17, 2018
University of California, Berkeley neuroscientists have tracked the progress of a thought through the brain, showing clearly how the prefrontal cortex at the front of the brain coordinates activity to help us act in response ...

Midbrain 'start neurons' control whether we walk or run

January 17, 2018
Locomotion comprises the most fundamental movements we perform. It is a complex sequence from initiating the first step, to stopping when we reach our goal. At the same time, locomotion is executed at different speeds to ...

Miles Davis is not Mozart: The brains of jazz and classical pianists work differently

January 16, 2018
Keith Jarret, world-famous jazz pianist, once answered in an interview when asked if he would ever be interested in doing a concert where he would play both jazz and classical music: "No, that's hilarious. [...] It's like ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.