No guts no glory: Harvesting the microbiome of athletes

August 21, 2017

Elite athletes work hard to excel in sports, but they may also get a natural edge from the bacteria that inhabit their digestive tracts. Scientists have now tapped into the microbiome of exceptional runners and rowers, and have identified particular bacteria that may aid athletic performance. The goal is to develop probiotic supplements that may help athletes—and even amateur fitness enthusiasts—recover from a tough workout or more efficiently convert nutrients to energy.

The researchers are presenting their work today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS). ACS, the world's largest scientific society, is holding the meeting here through Thursday. It features nearly 9,400 presentations on a wide range of science topics.

"When we first started thinking about this, I was asked whether we could use genomics to predict the next Michael Jordan," Jonathan Scheiman, Ph.D., says. "But my response was that a better question is: Can you extract Jordan's biology and give it to others to help make the next Michael Jordan?"

To answer that question, microbes seemed like a good place to start. "We are more than we are human," says Scheiman, who is a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of George Church, Ph.D., at Harvard Medical School. "The bugs in our gut affect our energy metabolism, making it easier to break down carbohydrates, protein and fiber. They are also involved in inflammation and neurological function. So perhaps the microbiome could be relevant for applications in endurance, recovery and maybe even mental toughness."

As a first step toward identifying bacteria that support , the researchers collected on a daily basis from 20 athletes training for the 2015 Boston marathon, one week before and one week after the race. "For two weeks I was driving around Boston collecting fecal samples and putting them on dry ice in the car," Scheiman says. "We followed athletes longitudinally to capture how the microbiome changes between performance and recovery."

The researchers sequenced the genomes of the sampled bacteria, using computational metagenomic methods to figure out how many and what types of microbes inhabited the fecal samples. When they compared the pre-race and post-race samples, the researchers found a sudden spike in the population of one particular type of bacteria after the marathon. "This bug's natural function is to break down lactic acid," Scheiman says. During intense exercise, the body produces more lactic acid than usual, which can lead to muscle fatigue and soreness. This bacteria could potentially help with that.

The team has isolated the bacteria from fecal samples and is beginning to evaluate its properties. They've already determined that the bug excels at breaking down lactic acid in a test tube and remains viable after it passes through the digestive system of mice. The researchers are now feeding the bacteria to mice to measure its effects on levels and fatigue.

In another set of experiments, the researchers are comparing the bacteria from ultramarathoners to those found in rowers training for the Olympics. They found a type of bacteria in ultramarathoners that can help break down carbohydrates and fiber—which is key during a 100-mile run—that wasn't present in the rowers, suggesting that different sports may foster niche microbiomes.

Scheiman says that the team plans to launch a company this fall called Fitbiomics. "I would like to think that a year after we launch, we could have a novel probiotic on the market," he says. "But in parallel we'll also be expanding our cohort of elite athletes from numerous sports to generate a larger microbial data and strain bank of novel probiotic candidates. In essence, we're mining the biology of the most fit and healthy people in the world and then extracting that information to help them and others."

Explore further: Researchers find link between gut bacteria and MS

Related Stories

Researchers find link between gut bacteria and MS

June 27, 2016
If asked to list problems that bad gut bacteria can cause, most would likely name digestive issues: constipation, excessive gas, or diarrhea.

Toddler brain development: Bacterial clues found in dirty baby diapers

July 17, 2017
If you're the parent of an infant, diaper duty probably isn't your favorite part of the day. But you dutifully check the contents of each one because your pediatrician told you that color and consistency of what they leave ...

Study suggests gut bacteria can aid recovery from spinal cord injury

October 17, 2016
Researchers from The Ohio State University have discovered that spinal cord injury alters the type of bacteria living in the gut and that these changes can exacerbate the extent of neurological damage and impair recovery ...

Intense training without proper recovery may compromise bone health in elite rowers

April 25, 2017
Bone mineral density, an indicator of bone strength, typically increases with regular exercise, acting as a protective mechanism against bone fractures and osteoporosis. But a new study suggests that the extended, high-intensity ...

Recommended for you

Researchers describe mechanism that underlies age-associated bone loss

September 22, 2017
A major health problem in older people is age-associated osteoporosis—the thinning of bone and the loss of bone density that increases the risk of fractures. Often this is accompanied by an increase in fat cells in the ...

Researchers develop treatment to reduce rate of cleft palate relapse complication

September 22, 2017
Young people with cleft palate may one day face fewer painful surgeries and spend less time undergoing uncomfortable orthodontic treatments thanks to a new therapy developed by researchers from the UCLA School of Dentistry. ...

Exosomes are the missing link to insulin resistance in diabetes

September 21, 2017
Chronic tissue inflammation resulting from obesity is an underlying cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. But the mechanism by which this occurs has remained cloaked, until now.

Thousands of new microbial communities identified in human body

September 20, 2017
A new study of the human microbiome—the trillions of microbial organisms that live on and within our bodies—has analyzed thousands of new measurements of microbial communities from the gut, skin, mouth, and vaginal microbiome, ...

Study finds immune system is critical to regeneration

September 20, 2017
The answer to regenerative medicine's most compelling question—why some organisms can regenerate major body parts such as hearts and limbs while others, such as humans, cannot—may lie with the body's innate immune system, ...

Immune cells produce wound healing factor, could lead to new IBD treatment

September 20, 2017
Specific immune cells have the ability to produce a healing factor that can promote wound repair in the intestine, a finding that could lead to new, potential therapeutic treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.