Confronting breast cancer is crucial to India's economic development

October 10, 2017 by Judith Fletcher-Brown, The Conversation
The lack of awareness of this growing problem is a big issue. Credit:

Breast cancer is a growing epidemic in India. It could kill 76,000 women a year by 2020, according to a recent study. It claimed more than 70,000 lives in 2012. At the heart of the issue is the country's rapid economic development, which has made Indian women more susceptible to the disease, without building the infrastructure to prevent and detect it. But the good news is that boosting breast cancer awareness and encouraging early detection could play a significant role in reducing it.

India's rapid economic expansion has it forecast to become the world's fourth largest economy by 2020 and set to surpass China as the world's fastest growing economy. This feat of development has lifted millions out of poverty. But economic growth has brought with it other challenges – including breast .

Growing risk

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and represents 25% of all cancers in women. In fact, there appears to be a link between breast cancer and development. Developed economies in the West such as in North America and Oceania rank at the top of the rates of incidence.

So, India's development brings with it new health risks for women. In Western countries, breast cancer incidence increases with age, whereas in India, the rate of incidence seems to affect the urban working women demographic the most (China is experiencing a similar trend). The blame for this catastrophe seems to lie with India's economic development and rapid urbanisation.

Modern day India's booming economy has led to rapidly expanding numbers of women in education who go on to pursue careers. This has led to the Westernisation of Indian women in a way that increases their risk of developing breast cancer: urban Indian women who work start having sex later, have fewer children and breastfeed them less than their rural counterparts – all factors which increase the risk of developing the cancer, over a lifetime. These women also tend to have a more Western diet, which leads to obesity, another factor that increases the risk of breast cancer.

To make things worse, a recent study showed that these women seek medical care extremely late – despite the fact that they are better educated and, to a certain extent, have greater economic independence. The reasons for this appear to be poor awareness of the early indicators of breast cancer and a lack of knowledge about how to self-examine. They also have limited access to helpful information. Altogether this results in a delay in seeking care and diagnosis.

My research with colleagues Vijay Pereira and Munyaradzi Nyadzayo also suggests that cultural issues may be a factor in why women do not access health services. Some are reluctant to consult male doctors. Many women are also dependent on other family members to get the required medical help because breast care is still a culturally taboo subject and rarely discussed. This often results in delays in seeking help.

The way forward

There are both economic and moral reasons to address this issue. Urban, working women – the group that is most at risk of cancer – play a significant and growing role in India's burgeoning economy. Many are employed in new technology and telecomms industries that have sprung up as a result of foreign direct investment from Western firms.

India also has a larger economic value at stake from advancing gender equality than other emerging economies. A report by financial services firm McKinsey found that employing more women in the workforce would add US$2.9 trillion to the country's annual GDP by 2025. So if a healthy female Indian workforce is a strategic advantage in sustaining its thriving economy, the Indian government has another reason to take ownership of women's healthcare.

Legally the Indian Constitution guarantees everyone's "right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health". Further, an Indian citizen's right to health, is integral to the right to life, which is also enshrined in the constitution. So the government has a legal obligation to provide health facilities.

By changing the current health policy to include early planning of awareness campaigns the Indian government could initiate an important strategy to reach women at risk. Our research into the issue shows the government should invest in community nurses because they are more effective than national advertising campaigns. Through their local community knowledge they gain the trust of husbands and fathers in overcoming cultural barriers to promote self-examination and encourage the in their families to seek early diagnosis.

Explore further: Breast cancer study in India shows how the country can avoid crisis

Related Stories

Breast cancer study in India shows how the country can avoid crisis

August 14, 2017
A new study examining breast cancer awareness in India has found that a lack of early diagnosis is leading the country towards an epidemic.

Breast cancer awareness: What women need to know

September 28, 2016
As national Breast Cancer Awareness Months begins next week, breast health expert Dr. Sharon Koehler of New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, says women need to know the following five things:

Pregnancy not dangerous for women who had breast cancer

June 4, 2017
Becoming pregnant after a diagnosis of breast cancer does not raise the risk of the cancer returning, said the largest study of its kind to date, released Saturday at a major cancer conference.

Breast cancer risk reduced in women with diabetes who take low-dose aspirin

June 8, 2017
A new study of nearly 149,000 women with diabetes over 14 years showed an overall 18% reduced breast cancer risk for women who used low-dose aspirin compared to those who did not. The study design and results are published ...

Mortality up with depression just before breast cancer diagnosis

April 14, 2017
(HealthDay)—Women with newly-developed depression before a breast cancer diagnosis have a modestly, but significantly, increased risk for death, according to a study published online April 7 in Cancer.

Most women unaware of breast density's effect on cancer risk, study finds

November 21, 2016
Most women don't know that having dense breasts increases their risk for breast cancer and reduces a mammogram's ability to detect cancer, according to a University of Virginia School of Medicine study.

Recommended for you

Researchers identify a mechanism that fuels cancer cells' growth

November 14, 2018
Scientists at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified sodium glucose transporter 2, or SGLT2, as a mechanism that lung cancer cells can utilize to obtain glucose, which is key to their survival and promotes ...

A new approach to detecting cancer earlier from blood tests: study

November 14, 2018
Cancer scientists led by principal investigator Dr. Daniel De Carvalho at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre have combined "liquid biopsy", epigenetic alterations and machine learning to develop a blood test to detect and classify ...

New antibody breakthrough to lead the fight against cancer

November 14, 2018
Scientists at the University of Southampton have developed a new antibody that could hold the key to unlocking cancer's defence against the body's immune system.

Photoacoustic imaging may help doctors detect ovarian tumors earlier

November 14, 2018
Ovarian cancer claims the lives of more than 14,000 in the U.S. each year, ranking fifth among cancer deaths in women. A multidisciplinary team at Washington University in St. Louis has found an innovative way to use sound ...

Solving the mystery of NPM1 in acute myeloid leukemia

November 13, 2018
Although it has long been recognized that mutations of gene NPM1 play an important role in acute myeloid leukemia, no one has determined how the normal and the mutated forms of the protein NPM1 function.

Cognitive decline—radiation—brain tumor prevented by temporarily shutting down immune response

November 13, 2018
Treating brain tumors comes at a steep cost, especially for children. More than half of patients who endure radiation therapy for these tumors experience irreversible cognitive decline, a side-effect that has particularly ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.