Nigeria struggles to contain dramatic spread of deadly Lassa fever

March 13, 2018

Nigeria is battling on two fronts against an unprecedented outbreak of Lassa fever, a cousin of Ebola, that has already killed 110 people this year.

Even as doctors are grappling to contain the threat, health watchdogs are struggling to understand why the deadly virus has spread so dramatically.

The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has confirmed 353 Lassa cases since January 1, compared with 143 cases for the whole of 2017.

But the possible reasons for this surge are many, said NCDC director Chikwe Ihekweazu.

"The harder you look, the more you find," he said, citing a change in the virus's environment, viral mutation—and better reporting of cases by the public in response to awareness campaigns.

Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease that can be transmitted to humans from infected rat faeces or urine.

Like the notorious Ebola—but thankfully somewhat less contagious—it can also be passed from one person to another via contact with infected bodily fluids.

Full protective gear for medical personnel is vital and isolation is essential.

Overstretched facilities

A visit to the Lassa fever isolation ward at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital in southern Edo State—the only such unit in a country of 190 million people—provides a snapshot of the practical difficulties in tackling the peril.

Before the unit was built in 2008, suspect blood samples were sent to South Africa for an accurate diagnosis—but when the results came back it was already too late, doctors say.

Despite its unique status, the Lassa facility, staffed by a dozen Nigerian employees and a handful of European tropical medicine specialists, is struggling.

In normal times, it treats just a couple of dozen patients each year. But since the start of 2018, the unit has already admitted more than 150.

"Now we have just below 30 patients," said director Ephraim Ogbaini-Emovon. "We never recorded this (in previous years). Facilities are overstretched."

Dead rats in jars of formaldehyde decorated the corridors of the small clinic. Inside the isolation ward, the temperature was stifling at above 40°C (104°F) degrees.

Kevin Ousman, who specialises in combating viral risks at the World Health Organization (WHO), spends his days reminding people of basic protection.

"Change your gloves!" Ousmane orders. "Throw away this water! Don't put this bag on the floor."

In front of the hospital, surgical gloves and syringes spill out of the trash bins onto the grass.

"Given the situation we're living here, we are going right down to the basics," Ousmane tells AFP as doctors come and go clad from head to toe in protective suits.

Family care

A striking sight is that of relatives trying to care for their loved ones. Many come wearing just flip-flops and a simple facemask when they visit a patient in the isolation ward.

"It's a tradition in Africa for families to take care of their sick," a WHO employee remarks. "But we have to put a stop to that, it's much too risky."

Wilson Oherein had heard only vaguely of Lassa fever before his wife contracted the disease, to die of it a few days ago.

Their three-year-old daughter was also contaminated by Lassa fever and she was being cared for in the isolation ward at Irrua.

Oherein usually spends his days at his daughter's bedside and feeds her. He also takes her soiled garments and washes them in a bucket. But this afternoon, he is resting in a half-finished building behind the hospital, with other family members of patients.

He is lying, exhausted, on a mat on the floor. "I will be fine," he tries to convince himself, his forehead beaded with sweat. "I'm just anxious for my daughter and the mourning of my wife. It knocks me down."

Explore further: Lassa fever kills 21 in Nigeria: health officials

Related Stories

Lassa fever kills 21 in Nigeria: health officials

January 31, 2018
Twenty-one people have died from Lassa fever in Nigeria this month, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control said on Wednesday, in the latest outbreak in Africa's most populous nation.

Nigeria lassa fever death toll now 31: health minister

February 6, 2018
Thirty-one people have died from Lassa fever in Nigeria since the start of this year, the health minister said, with cases of the viral disease recorded across the country.

Nigeria reports 450 suspected cases of Lassa fever; 37 dead

February 13, 2018
The World Health Organization says as many as 450 people may have been infected with Lassa fever in Nigeria in less than five weeks.

West African nation of Guinea reports Lassa fever death

February 8, 2018
Health authorities in the West African nation of Guinea are reporting the country's first death from Lassa fever in nearly a quarter-century.

Lassa fever kills two in Lagos, 100 others on watch: hospital

August 9, 2017
Two people in Lagos have died and a hundred medical workers have been placed under observation after a flare-up of Lassa fever, a cousin of the deadly Ebola virus, officials said Wednesday.

101 die in Nigeria from Lassa fever outbreak

February 6, 2016
A growing Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria has killed 101 people, as West Africa battles to contain a flare-up of the virus, according to data from the nation's health authorities released Saturday.

Recommended for you

Global burden of low back pain—a consequence of negligence and misinformation

March 21, 2018
A series of groundbreaking papers from Australian and international researchers in The Lancet, published today (22/3) warns that low back pain is a major health burden globally - across developed and developing nations - ...

Microscopic 'shuttles' transport enzyme from cells to trigger onset of kidney disease

March 21, 2018
A new study involving the University of Sheffield has identified a key culprit in the onset of kidney disease in a major marker for kidney disease development.

Metabolite therapy proves effective in treating C. difficile in mice

March 20, 2018
A team of UCLA researchers found that a metabolite therapy was effective in mice for treating a serious infection of the colon known as Clostridium difficile infection, or C. difficile.

Study of COPD patients has created a 'looking glass' into genome of pathogen

March 19, 2018
Decades of work on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at the University at Buffalo and the Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System have yielded extraordinary information about the pathogen that does ...

Sick air travelers mostly likely to infect next row: study

March 19, 2018
People who fly on airplanes while contagious can indeed get other people sick, but the risk is mainly to those seated next to them or in the adjacent row, US researchers said Monday.

Newly described human antibody prevents malaria in mice

March 19, 2018
Scientists have discovered a human antibody that protected mice from infection with the deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The research findings provide the basis for future testing in humans to determine ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.