Ontology-based surgical subtask automation, automating blunt dissection

May 7, 2018, World Scientific Publishing

In a paper to be published in the Journal of Medical Robotics Research, a team of researchers have discovered a way to automate blunt dissection using the da Vinci surgical robot, which is controlled by the Da Vinci Research Kit (DVRK).

Blunt dissection is the surgical separation of tissue layers by means of a blunt instrument. In most surgical procedures, blunt dissection takes up far more time than sharp dissection, which can be described as the practice of cutting through tissues with a sharp instrument. Due to this, any innovation that can make the process of blunt dissection easier, safer or faster could significantly improve the lives of both surgeons and patients alike.

A good way to make blunt dissection easier, safer, and faster is to automate it. Here's a general overview of how the automation of surgical procedures is done. Surgical operations are first described as a series of tasks known as a Surgical Process (SP). An ontology, or a complex data/knowledge representation system based on the accurate description of agents in surgery, is developed to represent the SP in a way that allows it to be analysed in an automated manner. A Surgical Process Model (SPM) is then created to simplify the SP into a pattern that can be performed with support from a workflow management system.

Recently, a team of researchers comprising Dénes Ákos Nagy, Tamás Dániel Nagy, Renáta Elek, Imre J. Rudas and Tamás Haidegger have discovered a way to automate blunt dissection using the da Vinci surgical robot, which is controlled by the Da Vinci Research Kit (DVRK). The team decided to automate blunt dissection as it is performed during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC), or the procedure by which the gall bladder is removed by keyhole surgery. First, they read the surgical literature on LC and watched videos depicting the procedure. Based on this information, an SPM was created and the portion of the SPM which involved blunt dissection was selected for further study. An algorithm was written to control and monitor the execution of the process. The algorithim requires the surgeon to select a start and an end point for the dissection on an endoscopic image. The 3D field is then reconstructed and the dissection line between the boundary points identified. The computer vision algorithm selects one point on this line with the least depth and the surgical robot executes blunt dissection at this point. When the dissection is complete, the program checks if the target anatomy is exposed. If not, the algorithm reinitiates the dissection line and starts the process again.

To test the performance of this algorithm, the team created an object consisting of two outer layers of hard silicone and an inner layer of soft, foamy, dissectable silicone which could be penetrated with the laparoscopic tool. In all the test cases, the dissection progressed on the intended dissection line. The team also tested the sensitivity of the method to texture and rotation. In addition, they tested the method on more realistic objects such as chicken breast, pork shoulder, and duck liver. It was found that the method is highly sensitive to texture but not significantly sensitive to rotation, and that the performance of the method on realistic objects depended largely on the texture of the objects and the lighting. The method performed far better on feature-rich objects than on feature-poor ones.

While further trials are necessary to confirm the reliability and robustness of this method under surgical conditions, it seems that blunt dissection can be carried out by the surgical robot with only the visual data from the stereo endoscopic camera image feed. This means that additional sensors are not required, and that the can therefore be easily integrated into the current surgical workflow. In the near future, all blunt dissection could be carried out by surgical robots.

Explore further: Acute aortic dissection should be suspected with pulse or neurologic deficit and hypotension

More information: Dénes Ákos Nagy et al, Ontology-Based Surgical Subtask Automation, Automating Blunt Dissection, Journal of Medical Robotics Research (2018). DOI: 10.1142/S2424905X18410052

Related Stories

Acute aortic dissection should be suspected with pulse or neurologic deficit and hypotension

April 23, 2018
In the appropriate clinical setting, suspicion for acute aortic dissection should be raised when patients present with findings that have a high specificity and high positive likelihood ratio (hypotension, pulse deficit, ...

Genetic mutation linked to aortic dissection in the chest

May 11, 2017
Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden have discovered a genetic mutation that can cause dissection of the thoracic aorta, which is the body's main artery. The mutation leads to an impaired function of the smooth muscle ...

Da vinci robot used in anterior lumbar interbody fusion

March 12, 2013
(HealthDay)—The da Vinci Robotic Surgical System can be used for anterior lumbar interbody fusion, according to a case report published in the Feb. 15 issue of Spine.

Central neck dissection underused in some thyroid CA

September 28, 2017
(HealthDay)—Only about one-third of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) undergo initial central neck dissection, which is associated with a reduced rate of reoperation, according to a study published online ...

New surgical techniques help save patients from life-threatening heart condition

June 6, 2017
Cardiac surgeons are successfully performing more extensive surgical repairs of type A aortic dissection—one of the highest risk operations in cardiothoracic surgery. These new surgical techniques, along with improved postoperative ...

Serious heart problem a family matter

August 25, 2016
(HealthDay)—A potentially deadly heart problem can run in families and occur at similar ages, a new study suggests.

Recommended for you

Clues found to early lung transplant failure

May 21, 2018
Among organ transplant patients, those receiving new lungs face a higher rate of organ failure and death compared with people undergoing heart, kidney and liver transplants. One of the culprits is inflammation that damages ...

In breakthrough, surgeon builds windpipes from arteries

May 20, 2018
Where others failed, sometimes spectacularly, French surgeon Emmanuel Martinod has helped people whose windpipes have been ravaged by cancer and other diseases to live and breathe normally again.

Blood type O patients may have higher risk of death from severe trauma

May 1, 2018
Blood type O is associated with high death rates in severe trauma patients, according to a study published in the open access journal Critical Care that involved 901 Japanese emergency care patients.

Brains, eyes, testes: off-limits for transplants?

April 28, 2018
Since the world's first successful organ transplant in 1954—a kidney—the discipline has advanced to the point where a wounded soldier could have his penis and scrotum replaced in a groundbreaking operation last month.

Emergency treatment by older surgeons linked to slightly lower death rates

April 26, 2018
Patients undergoing emergency surgery who are treated by older surgeons (aged 60 or over) have slightly lower death rates in the first few weeks after their operation than patients treated by younger surgeons (aged less than ...

Bionic suit helps paralyzed patients stand and walk again

April 25, 2018
Patients undergoing physical rehabilitation at Rush for paralyzing injuries are being aided by a robotic suit designed to help raise people to full height and walk.


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.