Medications

History of liver disease does not impact efficacy of edoxaban

(HealthDay)—For patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the efficacy and safety of edoxaban versus warfarin is not altered with a history of liver disease, according to a study published in the July 16 issue of the Journal ...

HIV & AIDS

HIV infection may increase heart failure and stroke risk

A Journal of the American Heart Association analysis of information from a large health insurance database reveals that people living with HIV have an elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly ...

Cardiology

Risk factors ID'd for atrial fibrillation with type 1 diabetes

(HealthDay)—Older age, cardiovascular comorbidities, and renal complications increase the risk for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with type 1 diabetes, according to a study published online June 6 in Diabetes Care.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) and involves the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. Its name comes from the fibrillating (i.e. quivering) of the heart muscles of the atria, instead of a coordinated contraction. It can often be identified by taking a pulse and observing that the heartbeats don't occur at regular intervals. However, a conclusive indication of AF is the absence of P waves on an electrocardiogram (ECG), which are normally present when there is a coordinated atrial contraction at the beginning of each heart beat. Risk increases with age, with 8% of people over 80 having AF.

In AF, the normal electrical impulses that are generated by the sinoatrial node are overwhelmed by disorganized electrical impulses that originate in the atria and pulmonary veins, leading to conduction of irregular impulses to the ventricles that generate the heartbeat. The result is an irregular heartbeat which may occur in episodes lasting from minutes to weeks, or it could occur all the time for years. The natural tendency of AF is to become a chronic condition. Chronic AF leads to a small increase in the risk of death.

Atrial fibrillation is often asymptomatic, and is not in itself generally life-threatening, but may result in palpitations, fainting, chest pain, or congestive heart failure. People with AF usually have a significantly increased risk of stroke (up to 7 times that of the general population). Stroke risk increases during AF because blood may pool and form clots in the poorly contracting atria and especially in the left atrial appendage (LAA). The level of increased risk of stroke depends on the number of additional risk factors. If a person with AF has none, the risk of stroke is similar to that of the general population. However, many people with AF do have additional risk factors and AF is a leading cause of stroke.

Atrial fibrillation may be treated with medications which either slow the heart rate or revert the heart rhythm back to normal. Synchronized electrical cardioversion may also be used to convert AF to a normal heart rhythm. Surgical and catheter-based therapies may also be used to prevent recurrence of AF in certain individuals. People with AF are often given anticoagulants such as warfarin to protect them from stroke.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA