Ophthalmology

A human model to test implants for cataract surgery

Researchers at the University of East Anglia in collaboration with Hoya Surgical Optics have improved a laboratory model that simulates cataract surgery on human donor eyes.

Neuroscience

'Gut instinct' may have been the GPS of human ancestors

Ask anyone if they remember where they ate the juiciest burger, the sweetest cupcake or the smoothest bisque, and they probably can describe the location in great detail, down to the cross streets, the décor, and the table ...

Health

Using forensic science to tackle sexual violence

Researchers from the University of Leicester are using forensic DNA to help tackle sexual violence in humanitarian contexts—such as remote locations, displaced communities, conflict and post-conflict situations.

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Biology

Biology (from Greek βιολογος - βίος, bios, "life"; -λογος, -logos, study of) is the science that studies living organisms. Prior to the nineteenth century, biology came under the general study of all natural objects called natural history.

The term biology was first coined by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus.[citation needed] It is now a standard subject of instruction at schools and universities around the world, and over a million papers are published annually in a wide array of biology and medicine journals.

Biology examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution and classification of all living things. Five unifying principles form the foundation of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, gene theory, energy, and homeostasis.

Traditionally, the specialized disciplines of biology are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of microorganisms.

These fields are further divided based on the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the fundamental chemistry of life, molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules, cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism; and ecology examines how various organisms interrelate with their environment.

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