Medical research

Mechanical forces control cell fate during brain formation

A new study coordinated by the Research Group in Developmental Biology at UPF shows that during the embryonic development of the brain, the cells that are between adjacent segments detect the mechanical forces generated during ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Were infected ticks tested as a biological weapon on the US public?

The House of Representatives has instructed the Pentagon to disclose whether it used ticks to infect the American public with Lyme disease between 1950 and 1975. The allegation comes from Chris Smith, the Republican representative ...

Radiology & Imaging

Gold makes invisible surfaces visible in CT

Today, the three-dimensional visualization and analysis of biological samples using computer tomography (CT) is a routine procedure. However, in the past, it was very difficult to visualize the fine surface details of many ...

Neuroscience

Team unveils the hidden control architecture of brain networks

A KAIST research team identified the intrinsic control architecture of brain networks. The control properties will contribute to providing a fundamental basis for the exogenous control of brain networks and, therefore, has ...

Medical research

Cancer sufferers' hair loss misery during chemo could be over

Scientists at the University of Huddersfield aim to minimise, or eliminate completely, the hair loss that is one of the most distressing side-effects of cancer treatment. They aim to achieve this by combining scalp cooling ...

Neuroscience

Untangling the brain's life-support network

The portion of the brain known as the hypothalamus is small but mighty—it controls fundamental behaviors and physiology that are essential for survival. These include eating and drinking, sexual and defensive behaviors, ...

Ophthalmology

A human model to test implants for cataract surgery

Researchers at the University of East Anglia in collaboration with Hoya Surgical Optics have improved a laboratory model that simulates cataract surgery on human donor eyes.

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Biology

Biology (from Greek βιολογος - βίος, bios, "life"; -λογος, -logos, study of) is the science that studies living organisms. Prior to the nineteenth century, biology came under the general study of all natural objects called natural history.

The term biology was first coined by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus.[citation needed] It is now a standard subject of instruction at schools and universities around the world, and over a million papers are published annually in a wide array of biology and medicine journals.

Biology examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution and classification of all living things. Five unifying principles form the foundation of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, gene theory, energy, and homeostasis.

Traditionally, the specialized disciplines of biology are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of microorganisms.

These fields are further divided based on the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the fundamental chemistry of life, molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules, cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism; and ecology examines how various organisms interrelate with their environment.

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