Oncology & Cancer

A new route to blocking children's bone cancer

Ewing sarcoma is a bone cancer that appears mainly in teenagers. Due to a single defective gene, once it spreads to distant organs it is hard to treat. Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have discovered molecular ...

Medical research

Protein research: Supposed disorder is not disorder after all

Many, but not all, proteins in a living cell have a defined three-dimensional structure. The interrelationship between the structure and function of proteins is the focus of many research initiatives that extend to the development ...

Oncology & Cancer

Genetically modified virus combats prostate cancer

Researchers at the São Paulo State Cancer Institute (ICESP) in Brazil have used a genetically manipulated virus to destroy tumor cells upon injection into mice with prostate cancer. The virus also made tumor cells more sensitive ...

Medical research

First in vivo proof-of-concept in Steinert's myotonic dystrophy

Ana Buj Bello's team, a researcher in an Inserm unit at Genethon, the AFM-Telethon laboratory, has made the proof-of-concept of a CRISPR-Cas9 approach in a mouse model of Steinert's myotonic dystrophy, the most common neuromuscular ...

Oncology & Cancer

Scientists alter 3-D genome using 'small molecules'

Researchers have discovered that the spatial organization of the genome can be altered using small molecule compounds which are considered as promising anti-cancer drugs. This work opens up the prospect of developing a new ...

Oncology & Cancer

Is your melanoma hot enough for immunotherapy?

Melanomas tend to be "hot" or "cold—if they're hot, immunotherapy lights melanoma tumors like beacons for elimination by the immune system; but 40-50 percent of melanomas are cold, making them invisible to the immune system, ...

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, or kernel), also sometimes referred to as the "control center", is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression--the nucleus is therefore the control center of the cell.

The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and separates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear lamina, a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to most molecules, nuclear pores are required to allow movement of molecules across the envelope. These pores cross both of the membranes, providing a channel that allows free movement of small molecules and ions. The movement of larger molecules such as proteins is carefully controlled, and requires active transport regulated by carrier proteins. Nuclear transport is crucial to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance.

Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The best known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA