Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Parasite paralysis: A new way to fight schistosomiasis?

Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have isolated a natural chemical that acts as a potent kryptonite against schistosomes, the parasitic worms that burrow through human skin and cause devastating health problems.

Health

Four things to know about vaping

The Trump administration has announced it will soon ban flavored e-cigarette products to deter an ever growing number of young users.

Neuroscience

Speeding up drug discovery for brain diseases

A research team led by Whitehead Institute scientists has identified 30 distinct chemical compounds—20 of which are drugs undergoing clinical trial or have already been approved by the FDA—that boost the protein production ...

Genetics

Genes linked to death from sepsis identified in mice

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body's immune response to infection spirals out of control. Bacteria in the bloodstream trigger immune cells to release powerful molecules called cytokines to quickly ...

Diabetes

New insight into the biology of insulin release

In a new study, Yale researchers challenge a long-held assumption about how insulin-producing cells in the pancreas sense and respond to glucose. Their findings could lead to changes in the way that scientists approach the ...

Medical research

Reinvigorating the clinical drug pipeline for TB

A research team led by scientists from the Broad Institute has uncovered a novel group of chemical inhibitors that can kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB). Importantly, these chemical compounds take aim at a previously ...

Immunology

Polysulfide donors strongly suppress inflammatory responses

Researchers from Japan have developed a new polysulfide donor: a chemical compound composed of chains of sulfur atoms that can artificially increase reactive sulfur species (chemically reactive molecules containing sulfur) ...

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions and that have a unique and defined chemical structure. Chemical compounds consist of a fixed ratio of atoms that are held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be compound molecules held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, metallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Substances such as pure chemical elements and elemental molecules consisting of multiple atoms of a single element (such as H2, S8, etc.) are not considered chemical compounds.

Elements form compounds to become more stable. They become stable when they have the maximum number of possible electrons in their outermost energy level, which is normally two or eight valence electrons. This is the reason that noble gases do not frequently react: they already possess eight valence electrons (the exception being helium, which requires only two valence electrons to achieve stability).

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