Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

WHO anti-cholera vaccination campaign begins in Sudan

The World Health Organization has launched a vaccination campaign in two southeastern provinces in Sudan to contain a cholera outbreak following flash floods that swept the country in late August.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Cholera outbreak leaves eight dead in Sudan: WHO

Eight people have died from cholera in Sudan including six in the war-torn state of Blue Nile, according to the World Health Organisation, amid a surge in the number of reported cases.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Sudan cholera cases surge to 124

Sudan said on Thursday that the number of cases of cholera reported in the country have surged to 124, most of them in the war-torn state of Blue Nile.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Over 830,000 cholera vaccinations planned in DR Congo: WHO

More than 830,000 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo's North Kivu province will be vaccinated against cholera, which has claimed over 240 lives this year, the World Health Organization said Monday.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

In Yemen, corruption worsened world's worst cholera outbreak

In the summer of 2017, a plane chartered by the United Nations idled on the tarmac at an airport in the Horn of Africa as officials waited for final clearance to deliver half a million doses of cholera vaccine to Yemen. Amid ...

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Cholera

Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by enterotoxin-producing strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Transmission to humans occurs through eating food or drinking water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae from other cholera patients. The major reservoir for cholera was long assumed to be humans themselves, but considerable evidence exists that aquatic environments can serve as reservoirs of the bacteria.

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, whose action on the mucosal epithelium lining of the small intestine is responsible for the disease's most salient characteristic, exhaustive diarrhea. In its most severe forms, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known, and a healthy person's blood pressure may drop to hypotensive levels within an hour of the onset of symptoms; infected patients may die within three hours if medical treatment is not provided. In a common scenario, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4 to 12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days, unless oral rehydration therapy is provided.

The majority of reported cholera cases worldwide occur in Africa. It is estimated that most cases of cholera are unreported due to poor surveillance systems, particularly in Africa. Fatality rates are 5% of total cases in Africa, and less than 1% elsewhere. For a map of recent international outbreaks, see:[3]

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