Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

A potentially longer-lasting cholera vaccine

Cholera, a diarrheal disease caused by the highly transmissible bacteria Vibrio cholerae, kills tens of thousands of people each year worldwide. Current vaccines last only 2–5 years, and they don't work very well in young ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

32 dead in Cameroon cholera outbreak

Thirty-two people have died in an outbreak of cholera in the central-western African state of Cameroon, the authorities said Wednesday.

Gastroenterology

War in the gut: How human microbiota resist the cholera bacterium

Cholera is still an enormous public health problem. There have been seven major pandemics of the acute diarrheal disease in the last 200 years. According to the WHO, cholera still kills up to 143,000 people each year and ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Cholera kills over 2,300 in Nigeria's worst outbreak in years

Cholera has killed more than 2,300 people and infected thousands more, mostly children, in Nigeria since the start of the year, a senior health official said on Monday, in the nation's worst outbreak in years.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Nigeria faces one of its worst cholera outbreaks in years

Nigeria is seeing one of its worst cholera outbreaks in years, with more than 2,300 people dying from suspected cases as Africa's most populous country struggles to deal with multiple disease outbreaks.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Toll in Niger cholera epidemic reaches 104

An epidemic of cholera that has struck six regions in southern Niger has claimed 104 lives, the health ministry said on Friday.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Cholera kills 35 in Niger

A cholera epidemic has claimed 35 lives in Niger, the health ministry of the poor Sahel nation said Thursday.

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Cholera

Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by enterotoxin-producing strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Transmission to humans occurs through eating food or drinking water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae from other cholera patients. The major reservoir for cholera was long assumed to be humans themselves, but considerable evidence exists that aquatic environments can serve as reservoirs of the bacteria.

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, whose action on the mucosal epithelium lining of the small intestine is responsible for the disease's most salient characteristic, exhaustive diarrhea. In its most severe forms, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known, and a healthy person's blood pressure may drop to hypotensive levels within an hour of the onset of symptoms; infected patients may die within three hours if medical treatment is not provided. In a common scenario, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4 to 12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days, unless oral rehydration therapy is provided.

The majority of reported cholera cases worldwide occur in Africa. It is estimated that most cases of cholera are unreported due to poor surveillance systems, particularly in Africa. Fatality rates are 5% of total cases in Africa, and less than 1% elsewhere. For a map of recent international outbreaks, see:[3]

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