Pediatrics

Evidence grows for iron deficiency screening in childhood

Two recent studies from the University of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children are adding to mounting evidence that Canadians would benefit from more screening for iron deficiency in early childhood.

Neuroscience

Walking changes vision

How do we perceive our environment? What is the influence of sensory stimuli on the peripheral nervous system and what on the brain? Science has an interest in this question for many reasons. In the long term, insights from ...

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Cognitive test

Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and animals. Tests administered to humans include various forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test (a test of visual self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests learning ability). Such study is important to research concerning the philosophy of mind and psychology, as well as determination of human and animal intelligence.

Modern cognitive tests originated through the work of Sir Francis Galton who coined the term "mental tests". Consistent with views of the late nineteenth century, most of his measurements were physical and physiological, rather than "mental". For instance he measured strength of grip and height and weight. He established an "Anthropometric Laboratory" in the 1880's where patrons paid to have physical and physiological attributes measured to estimate their intelligence. So, his measures of mental or cognitive components were not successful in modern terms, although his indirect effects were arguably enormous. His work influenced later researchers who developed better measures of intelligence using cognitive tests (see Alfred Binet , Raymond Cattell and Lewis Terman).

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