Medical research

Developing standards for organ-on-a-chip research

When testing a new medicine, researchers must do more than assess how well that drug works. They also have to determine whether the medicine has some negative, unintended consequences.

Psychology & Psychiatry

New research shows how empathy can be socially transmitted

Prof. Dr. Grit Hein's latest assessments of empathic abilities once again challenge the old adage, "You can't teach an old dog new tricks." It seems that not only children but also adults can adopt empathic responses from ...

Neuroscience

Can a single brain region encode familiarity and recollection?

The human brain has the extraordinary ability to rapidly discern a stranger from someone familiar, even as it can simultaneously remember details about someone across decades of encounters. Now, in mouse studies, scientists ...

Neuroscience

Neuronal diversity impacts the brain's information processing

Northwestern Medicine investigators have revealed new insights into the impact of neuronal structural diversity on neural computation, the basis of brain function, according to a recent study published in the Proceedings ...

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Computer

A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.

Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into a wristwatch, and can be powered by a watch battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". The embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are however the most numerous.

The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore computers ranging from a mobile phone to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA