Arthritis & Rheumatism

Criteria to predict cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients identified

Like a cold front that moves in, setting the stage for severe weather, coronavirus infection triggers showers of infection-fighting immune molecules—showers that sometimes escalate into a chaotic immune response known as ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Blood test could identify COVID-19 patients at risk of cytokine storm

Southampton researchers have identified a blood profile that could help identify COVID-19 patients at greatest risk of deterioration and direct them towards trials of specific treatments that could modify their immune systems' ...

Vaccination

New vaccine design reduces inflammation, enhances protection

Adjuvants are a key ingredient of many modern vaccines, working to unleash an immune response that helps protect the body from disease. Many scientists believe that adjuvants are they key to developing new kinds of vaccines ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Does the COVID-19 cytokine storm exist?

Inflammatory proteins, also known as cytokines, play a crucial role in the immune response. If this immune response is too strong, a phenomenon known as "cytokine storm," it can cause harm to the patient. It has been thought ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Antibody blockade effective in treatment of severe COVID-19

As countries around the world race to develop a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, researchers are working to understand exactly how it causes the myriad of symptoms that seem to linger long after ...

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Cytokine

Cytokines (Greek cyto-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are small cell-signaling protein molecules that are secreted by the glial cells of the nervous system and by numerous cells of the immune system and are a category of signaling molecules used extensively in intercellular communication. Cytokines can be classified as proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins; the term "cytokine" encompasses a large and diverse family of regulators produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin.

The term "cytokine" has been used to refer to the immunomodulating agents, such as interleukins and interferons. Biochemists disagree as to which molecules should be termed cytokines and which hormones. As we learn more about each, anatomic and structural distinctions between the two are fading. Classic protein hormones circulate in nanomolar (10-9) concentrations that usually vary by less than one order of magnitude. In contrast, some cytokines (such as IL-6) circulate in picomolar (10-12) concentrations that can increase up to 1,000-fold during trauma or infection. The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. Virtually all nucleated cells, but especially endo/epithelial cells and resident macrophages (many near the interface with the external environment) are potent producers of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. In contrast, classic hormones, such as insulin, are secreted from discrete glands (e.g., the pancreas). As of 2008, the current terminology refers to cytokines as immunomodulating agents. However, more research is needed in this area of defining cytokines and hormones.

Part of the difficulty with distinguishing cytokines from hormones is that some of the immunomodulating effects of cytokines are systemic rather than local. For instance, to use hormone terminology, the action of cytokines may be autocrine or paracrine in chemotaxis and endocrine as a pyrogen. Further, as molecules, cytokines are not limited to their immunomodulatory role. For instance, cytokines are also involved in several developmental processes during embryogenesis

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