Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

What EEGs tell us about COVID-19 and the brain

Throughout the pandemic, healthcare workers have seen more than just the lungs affected by COVID-19. Doctors have reported neurological complications including stroke, headache and seizures, but the information is limited ...

Neuroscience

Detecting epilepsy with entropy

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder wherein abnormal firing of neurons in the brain leads to seizures. It can abruptly disrupt the health and life of those people it affects. Its diagnosis can limit certain aspects ...

Neuroscience

New imaging method tracks brain's elusive networks

Understanding the source and network of signals as the brain functions is a central goal of brain research. Now, Carnegie Mellon engineers have created a system for high-density EEG imaging of the origin and path of normal ...

Neuroscience

High density EEG produces dynamic image of brain signal source

Marking a major milestone on the path to meeting the objectives of the NIH BRAIN initiative, research by Carnegie Mellon's Biomedical Engineering Department Head Bin He advances high-density electroencephalography (EEG) as ...

Neuroscience

Video games improve the visual attention of expert players

Action real-time strategy video games such as World of Warcraft, Age of Empires, and Total War are played by millions. These games, which can be won through strategic planning, selective attention, sensorimotor skills, and ...

Medical research

Resting-state EEG can predict sertraline treatment outcomes

A latent-space machine learning algorithm tailored for resting-state electroencephalography (rsEEG) can predict treatment outcomes with sertraline in depression, according to a study published online Feb. 10 in Nature Biotechnology.

Neuroscience

How to tell if a brain is awake

Remarkably, scientists are still debating just how to reliably determine whether someone is conscious. This question is of great practical importance when making medical decisions about anesthesia or treating patients in ...

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study. A secondary clinical use of EEG is in the diagnosis of coma, encephalopathies, and brain death. EEG used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of anatomical imaging techniques with high (<1 mm) spatial resolution like as MRI and CT. Despite limited spatial resolution, EEG continues to be a valuable tool for research and diagnosis, especially when millisecond-range temporal resolution (not possible with CT or MRI) is required.

Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials (EP), which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a stimulus of some sort (visual, somatosensory, or auditory). Event-related potentials (ERPs) refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.

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