Medications

Epinephrine personal autoinjectors cost-effective at $24

(HealthDay)—In a simulation of children with peanut allergy, epinephrine personal autoinjectors are cost-effective at $24, according to a study published online Nov. 16 in JAMA Network Open.

Immunology

Will your epinephrine auto injector still work if it gets frozen?

If you are one of the millions of people in the U.S. who has a severe allergy and carries an epinephrine auto injector (EAI) you may have wondered if it will still work if it gets left in your car in winter and freezes. Turns ...

Medications

FDA extends EpiPen expiration dates to tackle shortage

(HealthDay)—The expiration dates of certain batches of EpiPens have been extended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in an effort to reduce shortages of the life-saving devices.

Medications

US approves first generic competitor to Mylan's EpiPen

US regulators Thursday approved the first generic alternative for the EpiPen, a life-saving emergency allergy medicine, two years after soaring prices for the original version owned by Mylan stoked controversy.

Cardiology

Epinephrine ups survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

(HealthDay)—Epinephrine use results in improved 30-day survival versus placebo in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, according to a study published online July 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Epinephrine

Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. Chemically, adrenaline is a catecholamine, a monoamine produced only by the adrenal glands from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.

The term adrenaline is derived from the Latin roots ad- and renes and literally means "on the kidney", in reference to the adrenal gland's anatomic location on the kidney. The Greek roots epi means on top of, while "Nephros" refers to the kidneys. These roots combined create adrenaline which roughly translates to "pertaining to on top of the kidneys" which is also the anatomical location of the adrenal glands. The term epinephrine is often shortened to epi in medical jargon.

Epinephrine is released during sexual arousal and it plays a very important role in orgasm. It has also the function to maintain the heart beat rate to keep the sexual arousal. It is produced by the adrenal glands and it is used during extensive exercise and maintaining bodily functions. Other functions and secretions are discussed in the article.

Adrenal extracts containing adrenaline were first obtained by Polish physiologist Napoleon Cybulski in 1895. These extracts, which he called nadnerczyna, contained adrenaline and other catecholamines. Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine and his assistant Keizo Uenaka independently discovered adrenaline in 1900. In 1901, Takamine successfully isolated and purified the hormone from the adrenal glands of sheep and oxen. Adrenaline was first synthesized in the laboratory by Friedrich Stolz and Henry Drysdale Dakin, independently, in 1904.

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