Exoskeletons have a problem: They can strain the brain

Exoskeletons—wearable devices used by workers on assembly lines or in warehouses to alleviate stress on their lower backs—may compete with valuable resources in the brain while people work, canceling out the physical ...

Sports medicine & Kinesiology

Exoskeleton reduces amount of work required to walk

A team of researchers at Queen's University in Canada has developed an exoskeleton that reduces the metabolic cost of walking. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their system and how it works. ...

Sports medicine & Kinesiology

Ankle exoskeleton enables faster walking

Being unable to walk quickly can be frustrating and problematic, but it is a common issue, especially as people age. Noting the pervasiveness of slower-than-desired walking, engineers at Stanford University have tested how ...

Gerontology & Geriatrics

Exoskeletons for the elderly

The concept of a powered exoskeleton has been discussed widely in the context of science fiction and in industry where a human operator exploits robotic components that allow them to wield much greater strength in lifting ...


Exoskeletons can also reduce strain in health care

Wearable exoskeletons are increasingly being used in physically demanding jobs to support good ergonomics and augment muscular strength. In ground-breaking studies led by researchers at Tampere University and LUT University ...

Overweight & Obesity

Robot technology for everyone or only for the average person?

Robot technology is being used more and more in health rehabilitation and in working life. Exoskeletons are one technology with great potential. But this technology is often developed for the average person. So what about ...

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An exoskeleton is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human. In popular usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "shells". Examples of exoskeleton animals include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters. The shells of the various groups of shelled mollusks, including those of snails, clams, tusk shells, chitons and nautilus, are also exoskeletons.

Mineralized exoskeletons first appeared in the fossil record about 550 million years ago, and their evolution is considered by some to have played a role in the subsequent Cambrian explosion of animals.[citation needed]

Some animals, such as the tortoise, have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton.

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