Neuroscience

Exoskeletons have a problem: They can strain the brain

Exoskeletons—wearable devices used by workers on assembly lines or in warehouses to alleviate stress on their lower backs—may compete with valuable resources in the brain while people work, canceling out the physical ...

Sports medicine & Kinesiology

Exoskeleton reduces amount of work required to walk

A team of researchers at Queen's University in Canada has developed an exoskeleton that reduces the metabolic cost of walking. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their system and how it works. ...

Sports medicine & Kinesiology

Ankle exoskeleton enables faster walking

Being unable to walk quickly can be frustrating and problematic, but it is a common issue, especially as people age. Noting the pervasiveness of slower-than-desired walking, engineers at Stanford University have tested how ...

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Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human. In popular usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "shells". Examples of exoskeleton animals include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters. The shells of the various groups of shelled mollusks, including those of snails, clams, tusk shells, chitons and nautilus, are also exoskeletons.

Mineralized exoskeletons first appeared in the fossil record about 550 million years ago, and their evolution is considered by some to have played a role in the subsequent Cambrian explosion of animals.[citation needed]

Some animals, such as the tortoise, have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton.

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