Neuroscience

Losing neurons is sometimes not all bad

Current thinking about Alzheimer's disease is that neuronal cell death in the brain is to blame for the cognitive havoc caused by the disease. But a new study suggests that neuronal death may actually be a protective reaction ...

Neuroscience

Diffusible guidance molecule that divides the brain

Boundaries between different regions of the brain are essential for the brain to function. Research to date has shown that molecular machinery located at the cell membrane, such as cell adhesion molecules, are responsible ...

Neuroscience

Adding new channels to the brain remote control

By enabling super-fast remote control of specific cells, light-activated proteins allow researchers to study the function of individual neurons within a large network—even an entire brain. Now one of the pioneers of 'optogenetics' ...

Neuroscience

Scientists decode mechanism of remembering—and forgetting

It's a common expression to say that your brain is full. Although the brain doesn't literally fill up, in recent years researchers have discovered that the brain does sometimes push out old memories in order to take up new ...

Neuroscience

Zebrafish help unlock mystery of motor neurone disease

Scientists from the University of Sheffield have successfully created zebrafish that carry the complex genetic change known to cause the most common genetic form of motor neurone disease (MND).

Immunology

Immunity connects gut bacteria and aging

Over the years, researchers have learned that the different populations of bacteria that inhabit the gut have significant effects on body functions, including the immune system. The populations of gut bacteria are sometimes ...

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Fly

Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera

True flies are insects of the order Diptera (Greek: di = two, and pteron = wing), possessing a single pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax.

The presence of a single pair of wings distinguishes true flies from other insects with "fly" in their name, such as mayflies, dragonflies, damselflies, stoneflies, whiteflies, fireflies, alderflies, dobsonflies, snakeflies, sawflies, caddisflies, butterflies or scorpionflies. Some true flies have become secondarily wingless, especially in the superfamily Hippoboscoidea, or among those that are inquilines in social insect colonies.

Diptera is a large order, containing an estimated 240,000 species of mosquitos, gnats, midges and others, although under half of these (about 120,000 species) have been described. It is one of the major insect orders both in terms of ecological and human (medical and economic) importance. The Diptera, in particular the mosquitoes (Culicidae), are of great importance as disease transmitters, acting as vectors for malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, encephalitis and other infectious diseases.

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