Genetics

Exploring autoimmunity's regulatory roots

Our genome contains vast networks that regulate the activity of protein-coding genes. Variations in this regulatory DNA (which does not encode proteins) may affect both when and how much of a given protein a cell produces. ...

Oncology & Cancer

Tracing a cancer's family tree to its roots reveals how tumors grow

Over time, cancer cells can evolve to become resistant to treatment, more aggressive, and metastatic—capable of spreading to additional sites in the body and forming new tumors. The more of these traits that a cancer evolves, ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Discovering a mysterious estrogen's important role in pregnancy

When a woman becomes pregnant, her levels of estriol, one of the three common estrogens that are nearly undetectable before conception, skyrocket. However, scientists never knew what this hormone does or why levels of it ...

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as rRNA genes or tRNA genes, the product is a functional RNA.

Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in the organism.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA