Medical research

Identification of all types of germ cells tumors

Germ cell tumors constitute a diverse group of rare tumors, which occur in the testes, ovaries and also in other places. Some germ cell tumors exist prenatally, while others present during or after puberty. The majority are ...

Genetics

Ancient epigenetic changes silence cancer-linked genes

An epigenetic change, a form of DNA control, that deactivates some genes linked to cancer late in human development has been conserved for more than 400 million years, new research led by the Garvan Institute of Medical Research ...

Genetics

DNA repair gene linked to male infertility

A key DNA repair gene known as X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1, or XRCC1, plays a vital role in maintaining genomic stability and is highly expressed in the early stages of sperm cell development (also known as spermatogenesis). ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Examining ball pits as a playground for pathogenic germs

Beware the ball pit. Ball pits used in children's physical therapy—similar to those made popular by restaurants catering to families—may contribute to germ transmission between patients, according to new research published ...

Health

Get the dirt on germs

Germs are lurking all around us, and they may be hiding in places that you had not even considered. Baylor College of Medicine's Isabel Valdez, physician assistant and instructor of general internal medicine, sheds light ...

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Germany

Germany i/ˈdʒɜrməni/, officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pronounced [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant] ( listen)), is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 81.8 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state and the largest economy in the European Union. It is one of the major political powers of the European continent and a technological leader in many fields.

A region named Germania, inhabited by several Germanic peoples, was documented before AD 100. During the Migration Age, the Germanic tribes expanded southward, and established successor kingdoms throughout much of Europe. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation while southern and western parts remained dominated by Roman Catholic denominations, with the two factions clashing in the Thirty Years' War. Occupied during the Napoleonic Wars, with the rising of Pan-Germanism inside the German Confederation resulted in the unification of most of the German states into the German Empire in 1871 which was Prussian dominated. After the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and the subsequent military surrender in World War I, the Empire was replaced by the Weimar Republic in 1918, and partitioned in the Versailles Treaty. Amidst the Great Depression, the Third Reich was proclaimed in 1933. The latter period was marked by Fascism and the Second World War. After 1945, Germany was divided by allied occupation, and evolved into two states, East Germany and West Germany. In 1990 Germany was reunified.

Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area and since 1999 a member of the eurozone. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, the OECD and the Council of Europe, and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011–2012 term.

It has the world's fourth largest economy by nominal GDP and the fifth largest by purchasing power parity. It is the second largest exporter and third largest importer of goods. The country has developed a very high standard of living and a comprehensive system of social security. Germany has been the home of many influential scientists and inventors, and is known for its cultural and political history.

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