Medical research

Manufacturing spermatogonia stem cells

For species that rely on sexual reproduction, including mice and men, offspring can only happen if sperm from the male fertilize eggs from the female. Even artificial fertilization techniques depend on donors for both of ...

Oncology & Cancer

Genetic study of liver cancer reveals new drug target

Drugs targeting the gene MAGEA3 may help block the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the country. That's one conclusion ...

Oncology & Cancer

Sperm development linked to testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer to affect men between the ages of 15 and 49, and around 95% of these cases are caused by testicular germ cell tumors. Although testicular germ cell tumors typically manifest ...

Gerontology & Geriatrics

How age affects male fertility

In 2012, proud dad Ramjit Raghav made global headlines when he became a father at the age of 96. He had beaten the record for the world's oldest dad—a record he'd set himself, two years earlier, at the age of 94.

Health

Helping children clean up their hand-washing skills

One of the best way to help prevent the spread of COVID-19, influenza and other infectious diseases is by washing your hands. It can be easy for children (and adults) to forget what it takes to wash well.

Psychology & Psychiatry

Early trauma influences metabolism across generations

People who live through traumatic experiences in childhood often suffer long-lasting consequences that affect their mental and physical health. But moreover, their children and grandchildren can also be impacted as well. ...

Medical research

How an egg cell's 'operating manual' sets the stage for fertility

Recently published work from Carnegie's Allan Spradling and Wanbao Niu revealed in unprecedented detail the genetic instructions immature egg cells go through step by step as they mature into functionality. Their findings ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Q&A: The dirt on laundry and how to reduce your risk of getting sick

Clothing, linens, towels, cleaning rags, reusable diapers—laundry has a way of piling up. The often-dreaded chore is one of the ways we help maintain a clean and healthy household, but with the current COVID-19 pandemic ...

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Germany

Germany i/ˈdʒɜrməni/, officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pronounced [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant] ( listen)), is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 81.8 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state and the largest economy in the European Union. It is one of the major political powers of the European continent and a technological leader in many fields.

A region named Germania, inhabited by several Germanic peoples, was documented before AD 100. During the Migration Age, the Germanic tribes expanded southward, and established successor kingdoms throughout much of Europe. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation while southern and western parts remained dominated by Roman Catholic denominations, with the two factions clashing in the Thirty Years' War. Occupied during the Napoleonic Wars, with the rising of Pan-Germanism inside the German Confederation resulted in the unification of most of the German states into the German Empire in 1871 which was Prussian dominated. After the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and the subsequent military surrender in World War I, the Empire was replaced by the Weimar Republic in 1918, and partitioned in the Versailles Treaty. Amidst the Great Depression, the Third Reich was proclaimed in 1933. The latter period was marked by Fascism and the Second World War. After 1945, Germany was divided by allied occupation, and evolved into two states, East Germany and West Germany. In 1990 Germany was reunified.

Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area and since 1999 a member of the eurozone. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, the OECD and the Council of Europe, and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011–2012 term.

It has the world's fourth largest economy by nominal GDP and the fifth largest by purchasing power parity. It is the second largest exporter and third largest importer of goods. The country has developed a very high standard of living and a comprehensive system of social security. Germany has been the home of many influential scientists and inventors, and is known for its cultural and political history.

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