Ophthalmology

Americans lack knowledge about eye health

Americans' lack of knowledge about eye health may put their vision at risk, according to a survey released by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Autism spectrum disorders

Why many children with autism have oral health problems

The World Health Organisation estimates that one in 160 children around the world has an autism spectrum disorder. Autism is a condition related to the development of the brain and is usually noticeable by the time a child ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Black kids and suicide: Why are rates so high, and so ignored?

Teen suicide rates among black youth are increasing. In 2016 and again in 2018, national data revealed that among children age 5-11, black children had the highest rate of death by suicide. For the years 2008 to 2012, 59 ...

Surgery

Knee replacement timing is all wrong for most patients

The timing of knee replacement surgery is critical to optimize its benefit. But 90% of patients with knee osteoarthritis who would potentially benefit from knee replacement are waiting too long to have it and getting less ...

Addiction

New study finds 8% of Chinese men are problem drinkers

Alcohol consumption has become more prevalent in China in recent years but limited large-scale epidemiological evidence has made it difficult to know the true scale of the problem. A new large study of Chinese adults, published ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Bacterial link in celiac disease

Bacterial exposure has been identified as a potential environmental risk factor in developing coeliac disease, a hereditary autoimmune-like condition that affects about one in 70 Australians.

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Health effects of tobacco

The health effects of tobacco are the circumstances, mechanisms, and factors of tobacco consumption on human health. Epidemiological research have been focused primarily on tobacco smoking, which has been studied more extensively than any other form of consumption.

Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancer).

The World Health Organization estimate that tobacco caused 5.4 million deaths in 2004 and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century. Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."

Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA and cause many genetic mutations. There are over 19 known chemical carcinogens in cigarette smoke. In addition, tobacco and tobacco smoke contain 2 radioactive carcinogens. Tobacco also contains nicotine, which is a highly addictive psychoactive chemical. When tobacco is smoked, nicotine causes physical and psychological dependency. Tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus such as premature births and low birth weight and increases by 1,4 to 3 times the chance for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).[citation needed] The result of scientific studies done in neonatal rats seems to indicate that exposure to cigarette smoke in the womb may reduce the fetal brain's ability to recognize hypoxic conditions, thus increasing the chance of accidental asphyxiation. Incidence of impotence is approximately 85 percent higher in male smokers compared to non-smokers, and it is a key cause of erectile dysfunction (ED).

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