Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Chronic hepatitis B infections in Europe on the rise since 2008

In 2017, the majority (58 percent) of the almost 27,000 newly reported hepatitis B cases in the European Union and European Economic Area were classified as chronic infections. This follows a consistent upward trend in reported ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Checkmate for hepatitis B viruses in the liver

Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Technical University of Munich, working in collaboration with researchers at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and the University Hospital Heidelberg, have for ...

Medical research

'Green Revolution' in RNAi tools and therapeutics

"Green revolution" in the early 1950s, the extensive cultivation of Dwarf Rice solves the food problem in developing countries. At present, chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been a major public health problem. ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

FDA approves mavyret for children, adolescents with hep C

(HealthDay)—Mavyret (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) tablets are now approved to treat all six genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in children ages 12 to 17 years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced yesterday.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

How the hepatitis B virus establishes persistent infection

New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses, according to a study published April 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Haitao ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Push to cure hepatitis B, a neglected disease

A coalition of researchers, health organisations and patient groups on Wednesday launched an ambitious campaign to cure hepatitis B, a disease that kills twice as many people as malaria but gets far less attention.

Medications

First two-drug regimen approved for HIV-1 treatment

(HealthDay)—The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced the approval of Dovato (dolutegravir and lamivudine), the first approved two-drug, fixed-dose, complete regimen for adults with HIV-1 who have not been previously ...

Medications

Discovery of a restriction factor for hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B is a viral liver infection that can lead to acute or chronic conditions. Although there is a vaccine that offers protection against the virus, current treatments which prevent the virus from replicating are not ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Slight decline in hepatitis C diagnoses in Europe

European surveillance data show a 10 percent decrease in newly reported hepatitis C cases between 2016 and 2017. However, with more than 31,000 recorded cases in 2017, diagnoses remain at a high level in the European Union ...

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a disease caused by HBV hepatitis B virus which infects the liver of hominoidae, including humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. Originally known as "serum hepatitis", the disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a third of the world's population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with the hepatitis B virus. This includes 350 million chronic carriers of the virus. Transmission of hepatitis B virus results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood.

The acute illness causes liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice and—rarely—death. Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause liver cirrhosis and liver cancer—a fatal disease with very poor response to current chemotherapy. The infection is preventable by vaccination.

Hepatitis B virus is an hepadnavirus—hepa from hepatotrophic and dna because it is a DNA virus—and it has a circular genome composed of partially double-stranded DNA. The viruses replicate through an RNA intermediate form by reverse transcription, and in this respect they are similar to retroviruses. Although replication takes place in the liver, the virus spreads to the blood where virus-specific proteins and their corresponding antibodies are found in infected people. Blood tests for these proteins and antibodies are used to diagnose the infection.

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