HIV & AIDS

2010 to 2018 saw decrease in rate of death for people with HIV

(HealthDay)—From 2010 to 2018, there was a 36.6 percent decrease in the rate of death among persons with diagnosed HIV (PWDH), according to a Vital Signs report published in the Nov. 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease ...

HIV & AIDS

Guidelines issued on managing infants exposed to HIV

(HealthDay)—In a clinical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics, published online Oct. 19 in Pediatrics, guidelines are presented for the evaluation and management of infants exposed to HIV.

Medications

EU regulator greenlights first injectable HIV drug

The EU's medicines regulator on Friday gave the green light for the first injectable treatment for the HIV virus that causes AIDS, which could change the lives of millions of people.

Cardiology

Pulmonary hypertension: Why creating awareness is key in Africa

Pulmonary hypertension is elevated blood pressure that occurs exclusively in the lungs. It is a deadly condition that affects an estimated 75 million people worldwide. Around 80% of them live in low- and middle-income countries. ...

Pediatrics

ACIP provides recommendations on meningococcal vaccination

(HealthDay)—Routine vaccination with a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended for adolescents aged 11 to 12 years with a booster at age 16 years, according to a report published in the Sept. ...

Oncology & Cancer

First man cured of HIV infection now has terminal cancer

Timothy Ray Brown, the first person known to have been cured of HIV infection, says he is now terminally ill from a recurrence of the cancer that prompted his historic treatment 12 years ago.

HIV & AIDS

HIV and suicide risks probed

In recent years, remarkable achievements in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapies have improved the detection, management, and care of persons living with HIV (PLWH). In the 1980s and 90s, patients with HIV infection faced ...

page 1 from 40

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. The four major routes of transmission are unsafe sex, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth (Vertical transmission). Screening of blood products for HIV has largely eliminated transmission through blood transfusions or infected blood products in the developed world.

HIV infection in humans is now pandemic. From 1981 to 2006, AIDS killed more than 25 million people. HIV infects about 0.6 percent of the world's population. In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. A third of these deaths are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and increasing poverty. According to current estimates, HIV is set to infect 90 million people in Africa, resulting in a minimum estimate of 18 million orphans. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.

HIV primarily infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through three main mechanisms: firstly, direct viral killing of infected cells; secondly, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and thirdly, killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Eventually most HIV-infected individuals develop AIDS. These individuals mostly die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system. Without treatment, about 9 out of every 10 persons with HIV will progress to AIDS after 10–15 years. Many progress much sooner. Treatment with anti-retrovirals increases the life expectancy of people infected with HIV. Even after HIV has progressed to diagnosable AIDS, the average survival time with antiretroviral therapy (as of 2005) is estimated to be more than 5 years. Without antiretroviral therapy, death normally occurs within a year.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA