Immunology

Vaccine investigators use bacterium's own protein against it

A team of Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and university scientists is investigating a new "ingredient" for use in vaccinating cattle against Johne's disease, a chronic wasting affliction that costs the U.S. dairy industry ...

Immunology

Study explores role of metabolism in immune cell behavior

What makes healthy cells change and become dysfunctional to the point of causing disease? In addition to a disruption in genes that regulate cells, there is another factor in cell misbehavior that involves metabolism, say ...

Medical research

Advanced computational modeling of the gut for biodefense

The Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory (NIMML) has developed a high-resolution model of the gut immune system by using advanced computational systems. The new high-performance computing (HPC)-driven ...

HIV & AIDS

Newly discovered immune cells at the frontline of HIV infection

Researchers at The Westmead Institute for Medical Research have discovered brand new immune cells that are at the frontline of HIV infection. Known as CD11c+ dendritic cells, these new cells are more susceptible to HIV infection ...

Oncology & Cancer

Signature of an ineffective immune response to cancer revealed

Our immune system is programmed to destroy cancer cells. Sometimes it has trouble slowing disease progression because it doesn't act quickly or strongly enough. In a study published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, ...

Medical research

Treatment for common cause of diarrhea more promising

One of the most common causes of diarrhea worldwide—accounting for millions of cases and tens of thousands of deaths, mostly of small children—is the parasite Cryptosporidium. Doctors can treat children with Cryptosporidium ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

One step closer to pain-free vaccinations

Micro-needles are a promising tool for the painless administration of vaccines through the skin. But, are these minuscule needles really effective? Ph.D. student Pim Schipper of the Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research ...

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes"), are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease. There are normally between 4×109 and 1.1×1010 white blood cells in a litre of blood, making up approximately 1% of blood in a healthy adult. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, and in leukopenia, this number is much lower than the lower limit. The physical properties of leukocytes, such as volume, conductivity, and granularity, may change due to activation, the presence of immature cells, or the presence of malignant leukocytes in leukemia.

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