Medical research

Hemodialysis patients have antibody response to COVID-19 vaccine

Most hemodialysis patients (HDP) but few kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after receipt of an mRNA vaccine, according to a study ...

Neuroscience

COVID-19 can cause severe inflammation in the brain

Both during and after infection with the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, patients may suffer from severe neurological symptoms, including anosmia, the loss of taste and smell typically associated with COVID-19. Along with direct ...

Immunology

Improving bone marrow transplants in mice to help fight disease

To study the immune system in human health and disease, scientists commonly use the genetic manipulation of mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) as a powerful model system. These studies have been extremely ...

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes"), are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease. There are normally between 4×109 and 1.1×1010 white blood cells in a litre of blood, making up approximately 1% of blood in a healthy adult. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, and in leukopenia, this number is much lower than the lower limit. The physical properties of leukocytes, such as volume, conductivity, and granularity, may change due to activation, the presence of immature cells, or the presence of malignant leukocytes in leukemia.

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