Cardiology

Researchers find new biomarker for active sarcoidosis

Low blood levels of immune cells called lymphocytes, in combination with higher levels of inflammation on PET/CT scans, are indicators of active sarcoidosis—an inflammatory disease that attacks multiple organs, particularly ...

Genetics

Genetic cause of severe liver disease discovered

Primary sclerosing cholangitis, or PSC, is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. It normally debuts in young adults and two thirds of patients are men. In most cases, the patient also has an inflammatory ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

New strategy blocks chronic lung disease in mice

Inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and, most recently, COVID-19, have proven difficult to treat. Current therapies reduce symptoms and do little to stop such diseases from continuing to damage the lungs. Much ...

Genetics

First multi-whole-genome study of IBD in African Americans

In African Americans, the genetic risk landscape for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is very different from that of people with European ancestry, according to results of the first whole-genome study of IBD in African Americans. ...

Gastroenterology

New potential therapy for Crohn's disease in children

Scientists from the Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago demonstrated that a nanotherapy reduces intestinal inflammation and shrinks lesions in a rodent model ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

ICI need not be withheld in those with autoimmune disease

(HealthDay)—For patients with advanced melanoma, response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is similar for those with and without preexisting autoimmune disease (AID), according to a study published online Feb. 16 ...

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Inflammation

Inflammation (Latin, inflamatio, to set on fire) is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection, the two are not synonymous: infection is caused by an exogenous pathogen, while inflammation is the response of the organism to the pathogen.

In the absence of inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal and progressive destruction of the tissue would compromise the survival of the organism. However, an inflammation that runs unchecked can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is for that reason that inflammation is normally closely regulated by the body.

Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation and is characterised by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.

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