Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Antibodies from earlier exposures affect response to new flu strains

We are repeatedly exposed to the influenza virus via infections, vaccinations and our communal environments. The annual flu shot is believed to be the best line of defense, and doctors recommend vaccinations every year because ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Bat influenza viruses could infect humans

Bats don't only carry the deadly Ebola virus, but are also a reservoir for a new type of influenza virus. These newly discovered flu viruses could potentially also attack the cells of humans and livestock, researchers at ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

'Killer' cells raise hope of universal flu vaccine

Scientists said Monday they had discovered immune cells that can fight all known flu viruses in what was hailed as an "extraordinary breakthrough" that could lead to a universal, one-shot vaccine against the killer disease.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Influenza and the common cold – two different diseases

There is a lack of information about the difference between influenza and the common cold. Most people struggle to distinguish between these two conditions, and this often leads to irritation and the perpetuation of myths. ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Bird flu shuffle probes viral compatibility

When influenza viruses that infect birds and humans meet in the same cell, they can shuffle their genomes and produce new strains that might have pandemic potential. Think of this process, called reassortment, as viruses ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Why Asian horses don't get sick with the flu

Avian influenza viruses infect horses in Mongolia but do not cause large outbreaks of disease because they failed to acquire key genetic changes to enable greater cross-species transmissibility, according to a study published ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Designing antibodies to fight the flu

The influenza virus is an annual threat to public health around the world. Rapid changes in viral surface proteins (antigens), however, make it difficult to identify antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity against different ...

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Orthomyxoviridae

Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus

The Orthomyxoviridae (orthos, Greek for "straight"; myxa, Greek for "mucus") are a family of RNA viruses that includes five genera: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Isavirus and Thogotovirus. The first three genera contain viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds (see also avian influenza), humans, and other mammals. Isaviruses infect salmon; thogotoviruses infect vertebrates and invertebrates, such as mosquitoes and sea lice.

The three genera of Influenzavirus, which are identified by antigenic differences in their nucleoprotein and matrix protein infect vertebrates as follows:

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