Diabetes

Targeting the 'second brain' to fight diabetes

Patrice Cani (UCLouvain) and Claude Knauf (INSERM) have discovered a "jammer" that blocks communication between the gut and the brain, thus preventing proper regulation of sugar and causing insulin resistance in people with ...

Diabetes

Enzyme insight could lead to new diabetes treatment

Research led by the Centenary Institute has discovered that the lack of an enzyme in the liver called sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) results in pronounced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, both symptoms of early stage ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Study examines role of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 severity

As COVID-19 continues to rage across the U.S., researchers are digging deeper into how the virus wreaks havoc on the body, especially for those with a pre-existing chronic illness.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. Insulin resistance in fat cells reduces the effects of insulin and results in elevated hydrolysis of stored triglycerides in the absence of measures which either increase insulin sensitivity or which provide additional insulin. Increased mobilization of stored lipids in these cells elevates free fatty acids in the blood plasma. Insulin resistance in muscle cells reduces glucose uptake (and so local storage of glucose as glycogen), whereas insulin resistance in liver cells results in impaired glycogen synthesis and a failure to suppress glucose production. Elevated blood fatty acid levels (associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus Type 2), reduced muscle glucose uptake, and increased liver glucose production all contribute to elevated blood glucose levels. High plasma levels of insulin and glucose due to insulin resistance are believed to be the origin of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, including its complications.

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